Penetration of cranial inner table with Gardner-Wells tongs.


The compression force exerted by Gardner-Wells tongs was compared with the force necessary to penetrate the cranial inner table with a Gardner-Wells tong pin. Load cells measured the force exerted by the spring-loaded Gardner-Wells tong pin on fresh cadaveric skull samples. Increasing forces were exerted until penetration of the inner table occurred. At the… (More)


Cite this paper

@article{Lerman2001PenetrationOC, title={Penetration of cranial inner table with Gardner-Wells tongs.}, author={Joshua A. Lerman and Curtis A. Dickman and R. J. Haynes}, journal={Journal of spinal disorders}, year={2001}, volume={14 3}, pages={211-3} }