BACKGROUND To the best of the authors' knowledge, there are few case reports of penetrating brain injuries (PBI) caused by nail guns and these have usually involved incomplete penetration of the skull. Complete penetration of a nail into the intracranial cavity is extremely rare. CASE STUDY Here, two such cases are presented. In the first, the nail entered through the right temporal bone, lodged in the right temporal lobe and was removed via craniotomy with intra-operative ultrasound guidance. In the second, the nail destroyed the left parietal bone, damaged the left internal capsule and lodged in the left temporal lobe near the left petrous apex and the brain stem. According to the latest literature retrieval, this is the first reported case of nail-gun injury to the internal capsule. The position of the nail precluded removal without further neurologic damage. Treatment strategies designed to optimize outcome, with or without surgery, and possible complications are discussed in this report.