Penalties for success: reactions to women who succeed at male gender-typed tasks.

  title={Penalties for success: reactions to women who succeed at male gender-typed tasks.},
  author={Madeline E. Heilman and Aaron S. Wallen and Daniel Fuchs and Melinda M. Tamkins},
  journal={The Journal of applied psychology},
  volume={89 3},
A total of 242 subjects participated in 3 experimental studies investigating reactions to a woman's success in a male gender-typed job. Results strongly supported the authors' hypotheses, indicating that (a) when women are acknowledged to have been successful, they are less liked and more personally derogated than equivalently successful men (Studies 1 and 2); (b) these negative reactions occur only when the success is in an arena that is distinctly male in character (Study 2); and (c) being… 

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