Penalties for success: reactions to women who succeed at male gender-typed tasks.

@article{Heilman2004PenaltiesFS,
  title={Penalties for success: reactions to women who succeed at male gender-typed tasks.},
  author={Madeline E. Heilman and Aaron S. Wallen and Daniel Fuchs and Melinda M. Tamkins},
  journal={The Journal of applied psychology},
  year={2004},
  volume={89 3},
  pages={
          416-27
        }
}
A total of 242 subjects participated in 3 experimental studies investigating reactions to a woman's success in a male gender-typed job. Results strongly supported the authors' hypotheses, indicating that (a) when women are acknowledged to have been successful, they are less liked and more personally derogated than equivalently successful men (Studies 1 and 2); (b) these negative reactions occur only when the success is in an arena that is distinctly male in character (Study 2); and (c) being… 

Tables from this paper

Wimpy and undeserving of respect: Penalties for men's gender-inconsistent success
No credit where credit is due: attributional rationalization of women's success in male-female teams.
TLDR
Unless the ambiguity about individual contribution to the dyad's successful joint outcome was constrained by providing feedback about individual team member performance, female members were devalued-they were rated as being less competent, less influential, and less likely to have played a leadership role in work on the task.
Why are women penalized for success at male tasks?: the implied communality deficit.
TLDR
Results indicated that the negativity directed at successful female managers--in ratings of likability, interpersonal hostility, and boss desirability--was mitigated when there was indication that they were communal.
The Power of Language: Gender, Status, and Agency in Performance Evaluations
In the workplace, women often encounter gender stereotypes and biases that reinforce the existing gender hierarchy, may hinder women’s career aspirations and retention, and may limit their ability to
Reactions to men’s and women’s counterproductive work behavior
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to clarify the nature of counterproductive work behavior (CWB) gender stereotypicality, and to consider whether despite efforts to systematically evaluate
A Crisis of Competence: Benevolent Sexism Affects Evaluations of Women’s Competence
People higher in benevolent sexism often outwardly endorse gender equality, but support men over women for challenging positions and experiences. Reflecting shifting standards (a tendency to evaluate
Motivated to Penalize: Women's Strategic Rejection of Successful Women
TLDR
The results suggest that the interpersonal derogation of successful women by other women functions as a self-protective strategy against threatening upward social comparisons.
Differential Support for Female Supervisors Among Men and Women
TLDR
A pattern consistent with gender in-group favoritism and inconsistent with lay beliefs that women respond negatively to women in authority positions is found.
Evaluating the Negative Impact of Gender Stereotypes on Women's Advancement in Organizations
11 Literature suggests that gender stereotypical expectations dictate perceptions of what is deemed appropriate for women and men. Research shows that women are victims of stricter standards and
Why Can’t a Woman Fail Like a Man? Gender Differences in Perceived Competence Following a Mistake
Stereotypes are pervasive and can significantly influence the way we perceive and evaluate others. When people occupy roles that are not congruent with stereotypes (such as a stay-at-home dad or a
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 44 REFERENCES
Speech style, gender stereotypes, and corporate success: What if women talk more like men?
This study tests competing socialization- and identity-based hypotheses concerning the impact of variations in speech style (powerful/powerless) on perceptions of male and female managerial job
Self-promotion as a risk factor for women: the costs and benefits of counterstereotypical impression management.
  • L. Rudman
  • Psychology
    Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1998
TLDR
Three experiments tested and extended recent theory regarding motivational influences on impression formation in the context of an impression management dilemma that women face: Self-promotion may be instrumental for managing a competent impression, yet women who self-promote may suffer social reprisals for violating gender prescriptions to be modest.
Discrimination Against Competent Women1
Although women have complained about job discrimination, the experimental literature has revealed little discrimination against competent women. On the thesis that discrimination would only occur
Description and prescription: How gender stereotypes prevent women's ascent up the organizational ladder.
This review article posits that the scarcity of women at the upper levels of organizations is a consequence of gender bias in evaluations. It is proposed that gender stereotypes and the expectations
Prescriptive Gender Stereotypes and Backlash Toward Agentic Women
In an experiment, job description and applicants' attributes were examined as moderators of the backlash effect, the negative evaluation of agentic women for violating prescriptions of feminine
Are Men Sexually Harassed? If So, by Whom?
TLDR
The results indicate that men experience potentially sexually harassing behaviors from other men at least as often as they do from women; however, men in all samples reported relatively few negative reactions to these experiences.
Sex Effects on Evaluation
Prejudicial evaluation is often cited as an explanation for the apparent failure of competent women to achieve as much success as men have. In this paper we review research on the evaluation of the
Are Women More Likely to Be Hired or Promoted into Management Positions
Abstract The research examined the likelihood that, relative to men, women would more often attain management positions due to promotion versus hiring. Financial services managers ( n = 30,996) were
Feminized management and backlash toward agentic women: the hidden costs to women of a kinder, gentler image of middle managers.
TLDR
Women must present themselves as agentic to be hireable, but may therefore be seen as interpersonally deficient, and Ironically, the feminization of management may legitimize discrimination against competent, agentic women.
Toward An Understanding of Achievement‐Related Conflicts in Women
The motive to avoid success is conceptualized within the framework of an expectancy-value theory of motivation. It is identified as an internal psychological representative of the dominant societal
...
...