Hysterosalpingo-Contrast Sonography With Four-Dimensional Technique for Screening Fallopian Tubal Patency: Let's Make an Exploration.
BACKGROUND Hysterosalpingography is used commonly in the evaluation of infertility and in the diagnosis of anomalies of the uterus and fallopian tubes. There is continued debate over the safety and diagnostic or therapeutic efficacy of water-soluble versus oil-based contrast media. CASE A 29-year-old woman with secondary infertility underwent hysterosalpingography with both water-soluble and oil-based contrast. The fallopian tubes appeared normal. Six months later, a plain abdominal radiograph obtained at the occasion of a minor motor vehicle accident revealed evidence of retained loculated pelvic contrast material. Subsequent laparoscopy identified adhesions and cul-de-sac implants strongly suspicious for endometriosis. Biopsy and pathologic study documented lipogranuloma. CONCLUSION Oil-based contrast media instilled into the pelvis at hysterosalpingography can persist for prolonged periods and create granulomatous lesions mimicking endometriosis. In view of the controversy whether oil-based contrast materials are superior to water-soluble media, the routine use of oil-based contrast media should be considered carefully.