Peer influences on adolescent cigarette smoking: a theoretical review of the literature.

@article{Hoffman2006PeerIO,
  title={Peer influences on adolescent cigarette smoking: a theoretical review of the literature.},
  author={Beth Hoffman and Steve Sussman and Jennifer B. Unger and Thomas W. Valente},
  journal={Substance use & misuse},
  year={2006},
  volume={41 1},
  pages={103-55}
}
This article reviews several classes of theories to elucidate the relationship between adolescent cigarette smoking and friends' cigarette smoking. Perceived influence theories hinge upon an adolescent's perception of friends' smoking behavior. External influence theories are those in which friends' smoking behavior overtly influences adolescent smoking. Group level theories examine how differences at the level of subculture, gender, and race/ethnicity influence the relationship under study… CONTINUE READING