Pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation improves gait freezing in Parkinson disease.

@article{Thevathasan2011PedunculopontineNS,
  title={Pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation improves gait freezing in Parkinson disease.},
  author={Wesley Thevathasan and Terry J. Coyne and Jonathan Hyam and Graham K Kerr and Ned Jenkinson and Tipu Z. Aziz and P. A. Silburn},
  journal={Neurosurgery},
  year={2011},
  volume={69 6},
  pages={
          1248-53; discussion 1254
        }
}
BACKGROUND Pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) stimulation is a novel therapy for Parkinson disease. However, controversies remain regarding the clinical application of this new therapy, including patient selection, electrode positioning, and how best to assess outcomes. OBJECTIVE To clarify the clinical application of PPN stimulation in Parkinson disease. METHODS Five consecutive patients with Parkinson disease complicated by severe gait freezing, postural instability, and frequent falls (all… CONTINUE READING

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Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of the pedunculopontine nucleus.

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