Pedunculopontine nucleus

  title={Pedunculopontine nucleus},
  author={Eduardo E. Benarroch},
  pages={1148 - 1155}
  • E. Benarroch
  • Published 19 March 2013
  • Biology, Psychology
  • Neurology
The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPN) is a neurochemically and functionally heterogeneous structure that occupies a strategic position in the dorsal tegmentum of the midbrain and upper pons. The PPN contains cholinergic, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic, and glutamatergic neurons; it receives direct input from the cerebral cortex, is reciprocally connected with the basal ganglia, and provides inputs to the thalamus and motor areas of the brainstem and spinal cord. Via these connections… 

Dystonia and the pedunculopontine nucleus: Current evidences and potential mechanisms

Being a major component of the midbrain locomotion region, the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is known to have various connections with the basal ganglia, the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and motor

Participation of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus in arousal-demanding functions

Data is discussed that suggest that in addition to operating via thalamic nuclei, the PPTg may also operate by activating cerebellaruclei, especially the dentate nucleus, in such a way that an intense and diffuse activation of the cerebral cortex may be achieved.

Implications of gamma band activity in the pedunculopontine nucleus

It has now been determined that high-frequency activity during waking and REM sleep is controlled by two different intracellular pathways and two calcium channels in PPN cells, and novel mechanisms are proposed for insomnia as a waking disorder.

On the Role of the Pedunculopontine Nucleus and Mesencephalic Reticular Formation in Locomotion in Nonhuman Primates

The first extensive electrophysiological mapping of the MRF using extracellular recordings at rest and during locomotion in a nonhuman primate (NHP) (Macaca fascicularis) model of bipedal locomotion is provided, supporting the existence of a locomotor neuronal circuit within these MRF in behaving primates.

Deep Brain Stimulation of the Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus (PPN) Influences Visual Contrast Sensitivity in Human Observers

It is observed that under low frequency stimulation thresholds increased relative to no and high frequency stimulation in five out of six patients, suggesting that DBS of the PPN has a frequency-dependent impact on visual selection processes at a rather elementary perceptual level.

Pedunculopontine Nucleus Region Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson Disease: Surgical Anatomy and Terminology

It is demonstrated that both the anatomy and the functional role of the PPN region need further study, and the domains of uncertainty in surgical anatomy and terminology are outlined.

Pedunculopontine Nucleus Degeneration Contributes to Both Motor and Non-Motor Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease

Normal cellular and neuroanatomical features of the PPN, the differential susceptibility of PPN neurons to PD-related insults, and an overview of literature suggesting a role for PPN neuron populations in motor and sleep deficits in PD are discussed.

Oscillations in pedunculopontine nucleus in Parkinson’s disease and its relationship with deep brain stimulation

The different kinds of oscillations observed in the PPN of parkinsonian patients are explored, and how they underlie the pathophysiology of PD and the efficacy of PPN-DBS in these disorders are reviewed.

Pedunculopontine Nucleus Stimulation: Where are We Now and What Needs to be Done to Move the Field Forward?

Surgical targeting of the PPN is feasible and shows promise for addressing axial symptoms in PD but may require further refinements in targeting, improved imaging, and better lead design to fully realize benefits.

Electrophysiological and Neurochemical Considerations of Distinct Neuronal Populations in the Rat Pedunculopontine Nucleus and Their Responsiveness Following 6-Hydroxydopamine Lesions

Findings revealed that the changes in the firing characteristics of neurons in PPN in hemi-parkinsonism rats are closely associated with damaged neuronal morphology, which would make contributions to the divergence of dysfunctions in Parkinsonism.



The pedunculopontine nucleus and Parkinson's disease.

The anatomical connections and physiological attributes of the pedunculopontine nucleus are highlighted to discuss how the function of these connections may be altered in the parkinsonian state and to speculate how present and potential future therapy directed to the PPN might improve akinesia and gait difficulties in parkinsonia patients.

The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus: Where the striatum meets the reticular formation

Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of the pedunculopontine nucleus

Direct stimulation of the pedunculopontine nucleus can ameliorate some symptoms of Parkinson's disease, as demonstrated in both experimental animals and man.

The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus: implications for a role in modulating spinal cord motoneuron excitability

The aim of this paper was to critically review available data with respect to the presence of PPTg neurons linked to reticulospinal projections, the involvement of these neurons in modulating spinal reflexes, and the participation of fibers close to or within the PPTG region in such modulation.

Pedunculopontine nucleus microelectrode recordings in movement disorder patients

Electrophysiological characteristics of the PPN region provide further support for the proposed role of this region in motor control and to identify neurophysiological landmarks that may aid the proper placement of DBS electrodes in the nucleus for the treatment of PD and PSP.

The pedunculopontine nucleus in Parkinson's disease: primate studies

In the MPTP-primate model, microinjections of the gamma aminobutyric acid A (GABA) antagonist bicuculine into the PPN reversed Parkinsonian akinesia implying that stimulation of this region might have a therapeutic role in drug resistant PD.

The Role of the Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus in Experimental Parkinsonism in Primates

The PPN facilitates the motor system through its nigral projection and the decreased activity of the PPN may underlie the pathophysiology of parkinsonism.

Neurophysiological evaluation of the pedunculopontine nucleus in humans

It is demonstrated that the functional connections between PPTg and cortex, basal ganglia, brainstem network involved in sleep/wake control, and spinal cord can be explored in vivo and provided useful insights about the physiology of this nucleus and pathophysiology of PD.

Neuronal loss in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus in Parkinson disease and in progressive supranuclear palsy.

It is reported that the hindbrain NPP Ch5 cell group, thought to innervate many nuclei of the extrapyramidal motor system, the superior colliculus, and the substantia innominata, undergoes degeneration in idiopathic Parkinson disease and in the parkinsonian syndrome of progressive supranuclear palsy.

Pedunculopontine nucleus deep brain stimulation changes spinal cord excitability in Parkinson’s disease patients

The HR-threshold changes suggest that PPN may play a key-role in modulating spinal excitability in PD possibly by improving the basal ganglia-brainstem descending system activity.