Pediocin PA-1 is a bacteriocin which is produced by Pediococcus acidilactici PAC1.0. We demonstrate that pediocin PA-1 kills sensitive Pediococcus cells and acts on the cytoplasmic membrane. In contrast to its lack of impact on immune cells, pediocin PA-1 dissipates the transmembrane electrical potential and inhibits amino acid transport in sensitive cells. Pediocin interferes with the uptake of amino acids by cytoplasmic membrane vesicles derived from sensitive cells, while it is less effective with membranes derived from immune cells. In liposomes fused with membrane vesicles derived from both sensitive and immune cells, pediocin PA-1 elicits an efflux of small ions and, at higher concentrations, an efflux of molecules having molecular weights of up to 9,400. Our data suggest that pediocin PA-1 functions in a voltage-independent manner but requires a specific protein in the target membrane.