INTRODUCTION In Argentina, trauma is the most common cause of death among children older than 1 year old, has a high morbidity rate, and results in large costs for the health system. OBJECTIVE To identify causes of injuries in patients admitted to the hospital due to a trauma, and to analyze the relationship between epidemiological factors and severe trauma. POPULATION AND METHODS Prospective study. Children and adolescents aged 0 to 18 years old admitted to the hospital due to unintentional trauma between April 2012 and March 2013 were included. They were divided into two groups based on severity according to the pediatric trauma score (8 or lower) to identify risk factors by means of a logistic regression model. PREDICTIVE OUTCOME MEASURES: patients' and parents' demographic characteristics, socioeconomic factors, event data, initial care, course, and risk factors. Patients were stratified into three age groups for the analysis of the type of injury and the anatomic location. RESULTS Two hundred and thirty-seven patients were included. Traumatic brain injuries were predominant among children younger than 3 years old, while limb fractures were most common among children older than 3 years old. In the bivariate analysis, foreign parents, a state of poverty or destitution, an immediate preventable cause, dangerous heights, and an unsafe heating system were statistically significant outcome measures. Based on multiple regression, outcome measures included were foreign parents, living in a slum area, an immediate preventable cause, and an unsafe heating system. CONCLUSIONS The main cause of trauma was related to falls from heights, and some of the studied socioeconomic factors were associated with a higher risk of trauma. This information may be useful to develop prevention measures.