The role of CT angiography in the evaluation of pediatric renovascular hypertension
PURPOSE This study was undertaken to characterize the contemporary surgical treatment of pediatric renovascular hypertension. METHODS A retrospective analysis was conducted of the clinical data of 97 consecutive pediatric patients (39 girls, 58 boys), aged from 3 months to 17 years, who underwent operation at the University of Michigan from 1963 to 2006. All but one patient had refractory hypertension not responsive to contemporary medical therapy. Developmental renal artery stenoses accounted for 80% of the renal artery disease, with inflammatory and other ill-defined stenoses encountered less frequently. Splanchnic arterial occlusive lesions affected 24% and abdominal aortic coarctations, 33%. RESULTS Primary renal artery operations were undertaken 132 times. Procedures included resection beyond the stenosis and implantation into the aorta in 49, renal artery in 7, or superior mesenteric artery in 3; aortorenal and iliorenal bypasses with vein or iliac artery grafts in 40; focal arterioplasty in 10; resection with reanastomosis in 4; operative dilation in 4; splenorenal bypass in 2; and primary nephrectomy in 13 when arterial reconstructions proved impossible. Bilateral renal operations were done in 34 children, and 17 underwent celiac or superior mesenteric arterial reconstructions, including 15 at the time of the renal operation. Thirty patients underwent abdominal aortic reconstructions with patch aortoplasty (n = 19) or thoracoabdominal bypass (n = 11). Twenty-five of the aortic procedures were performed coincidently with the renal operations. Thirty secondary renal artery procedures were done in 19 patients, including nine nephrectomies. Hypertension was cured in 68 children (70%), improved in 26 (27%), and was unchanged in three (3%). Follow-up averaged 4.2 years. No patients required dialysis, and there were no operative deaths. CONCLUSION Contemporary surgical treatment of pediatric renovascular hypertension emphasizes direct aortic implantation of the normal renal artery beyond its stenosis and single-staged concomitant splanchnic and aortic reconstructions when necessary. Benefits accompany carefully executed operative procedures in 97% of these children.