Uneven strides in research and care have led to discrepancies in childhood cancer outcomes between high and low income countries (LICs). Collaborative research may help improve outcomes in LICs by generating knowledge for local scientific communities, augmenting knowledge translation, and fostering context-specific evaluation of treatment protocols. However, the risks of such research have received little attention. This paper investigates the relationship between pediatric oncology research in LICs and four core issues in the ethics literature: standard of care, trial benefits, ethics review, and informed consent. Our aims are to highlight the importance of this field and the need for further inquiry.