In Cameroon, nutritional disorders and infectious diseases account for the majority of pediatric deaths. Pediatric hematology and oncology as a subspecialty of its own is nonexistent. Cases are handled mainly in general pediatric wards. However, adult hematologists, radiotherapists, general practitioners also intervene. Diagnosis is made using available simple techniques. Treatments use adapted protocols elaborated by the lone pediatric hematologist-oncologist. Efforts are being made to create a specialized ward within the pediatric service of one of the teaching hospitals where treatment and care can be received at little or no cost.