Questionnaires were sent to 245 North American institutions with pediatric residency programs. There was a 69% response rate. Pediatric emergency care is provided in three types of facilities: emergency departments in pediatric hospitals, separate pediatric emergency departments or combined pediatric and adult emergency departments, in multidisciplinary hospitals. There are at least 262 pediatricians practicing full-time pediatric emergency medicine. The majority work in pediatric emergency departments, an average of 30.7 clinical hours per week. There are 27 pediatric emergency medicine programs with 46 fellows in training and 117 full-time positions available for emergency pediatricians throughout North America. Varying qualifications for these positions include board eligibility in pediatrics, certification in Basic Life Support or Advanced Trauma Life Support, and a fellowship in pediatric emergency medicine. The demonstrated need for pediatricians, preferably trained in emergency care, clearly indicates that pediatric emergency medicine is a rapidly developing subspecialty of Pediatrics that will be an attractive career choice for future pediatricians.