Payne and Jones revisited: estimating the abnormality of test score differences using a modified paired samples t test.

Abstract

Payne and Jones (1957) presented a useful formula for estimating the abnormality of differences between an individual's scores on two tests. Extending earlier work by Sokal and Rohlf (1995) and Crawford and Howell (in press), we developed a modified paired samples t test as an alternative to this formula. Unlike the Payne and Jones formula, the new method… (More)

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