Pax in development

@article{Gruss1992PaxID,
  title={Pax in development},
  author={Peter Gruss and Claudia Walther},
  journal={Cell},
  year={1992},
  volume={69},
  pages={719-722}
}
Tripartite organization of the ancestral chordate brain and the antiquity of placodes: insights from ascidian Pax-2/5/8, Hox and Otx genes.
TLDR
The expression of HrPax-258 gene is reported: an ascidian homologue of vertebrate Pax-2, Pax-5 and Pax-8 genes, and it is suggested that this subfamily of Pax genes has conserved roles in regional specification of the brain. Expand
Origin of Pax and Six gene families in sponges: Single PaxB and Six1/2 orthologs in Chalinula loosanoffi.
TLDR
The phylogeny of Pax and Six genes is analyzed and a model of the evolution of the Pax gene subfam families in metazoans is derived, illustrating a diversification of Pax genes into subfamilies mostly in triploblasts before the protostome-deuterostome split, whereas few subfam Families were lost in various phyla after the Cambrian explosion. Expand
Oxidative stress during diabetic pregnancy disrupts cardiac neural crest migration and causes outflow tract defects.
TLDR
Testing whether maternal diabetes, through hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress, before the onset of CNC delamination, impairs CNC migration and cardiac outflow tract septation found few, if any, migrating CNC cells were observed in embryos of diabetic mice, and this was associated with increased apoptosis along the path of C NC migration. Expand
The transcription factors Pax-6 and X-dll3 influence visual and olfactory system development in Xenopus laevis
TLDR
Antibodies generated against unique peptide sequences located in the carboxyterminal domains of the proteins produced from Xenopus A and B transcripts distinguish expression patterns for the two resulting proteins, and indicate that they are expressed dififerentially in the developing retina and lens. Expand
Expression of the paired‐box genes Pax‐1 and Pax‐9 in limb skeleton development
TLDR
Previous studies of Pax‐1 and Pax‐9 expression in embryonic limb development are extended while validating limb bud mesenchyme culture as an accessible experimental system for the study of Pax gene function and regulation. Expand
The zebrafish Pax3 and Pax7 homologues are highly conserved, encode multiple isoforms and show dynamic segment-like expression in the developing brain
TLDR
For the zebrafish Pax7 protein, this study reports the first full-length amino acid sequences in vertebrates and shows the existence of three additional isoforms which have truncations in the homeodomain and/or the C-terminal region, providing evidence for additional isoform diversity of vertebrate Pax proteins. Expand
Distributions of PAX6 and PAX7 proteins suggest their involvement in both early and late phases of chick brain development
TLDR
The isolation of chicken PAX6 and PAX7 as members of the PAX gene family expressed in late stages of chick nervous system development by generating monoclonal antibodies against these PAX molecules is described and their protein distributions revealed several new features of PAX expression patterns. Expand
Expression of the LIM class homeobox gene Xlim-1 in pronephros and CNS cell lineages of Xenopus embryos is affected by retinoic acid and exogastrulation.
TLDR
During gastrulation and early neurulation, RA strongly enhanced Xlim-1 expression in all three lineages and also expanded its expressing domains; this overexpression correlated well with RA phenotypes such as enlarged pronephros and hindbrain-like structure. Expand
Dysgenesis of cephalic neural crest derivatives in Pax7-/- mutant mice.
TLDR
The homologous recombination technique in embryonic stem cells and generated Pax7-/- mice suggests that the observed phenotype is due to a cephalic neural crest defect, and functional redundancy between Pax7 and Pax3 is discussed. Expand
Two Pax-binding sites are required for early embryonic brain expression of an Engrailed-2 transgene.
TLDR
Mouse studies indicate that a Pax-En genetic pathway has been conserved during evolution, and presents strong molecular evidence that the Pax genes are direct upstream regulators of En-2 in the genetic cascade controlling mid-hindbrain development. Expand
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References

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An exonic mutation in the HuP2 paired domain gene causes Waardenburg's syndrome
TLDR
A mutation causing Waardenburg's syndrome as well as a mutation causing a form of congenital deafness was found in the HuP2 gene, a member of the paired domain family of proteins that bind DNA and regulate gene expression. Expand
Homeobox genes and axial patterning
TLDR
Over the past seven years, the term “homeodomain” has evolved to define a class of protein domains that have recognizable similarity to a 60 amino acid motif originally recognized in three Drosophila homeotic and segmentation proteins. Expand
Waardenburg's syndrome patients have mutations in the human homologue of the Pax-3 paired box gene
TLDR
It is shown that some families with WS have mutations in the human homologue9 of Pax-3, which is one of a family of eight Pax genes known in mice which are involved in regulating embryonic development and which contains a highly conserved transcription control sequence, the paired box. Expand
Disruption of the Hox-1.6 homeobox gene results in defects in a region corresponding to its rostral domain of expression
TLDR
Within the same region of the presumptive hindbrain, two HOX-1 genes are involved in the patterning of two different populations of neural crest cells, and the implication of these results for the function of the Hox network during mouse embryogenesis is discussed. Expand
Expression pattern of zebrafish pax genes suggests a role in early brain regionalization
TLDR
Combined DNA clones are isolated for two zebrafish pax genes related to Drosophila and mouse paired-box-containing segmentation genes3–10 and strikingly, the borders of expression of the two pX genes coincide with morphological landmarks corresponding to the primary axon tracts that are generated in the embryonic brain a few hours after the initiation ofexpression of these genes. Expand
Mouse Small eye results from mutations in a paired-like homeobox-containing gene
TLDR
Analysis of three independent Sey alleles is reported and it is shown that indeed this gene is mutated and that the mutations would predictably interrupt gene function. Expand
N-CAM alterations in splotch neural tube defect mouse embryos.
TLDR
It is suggested that neurulation and NCC emigration from the neural tube occur at similar times in development, and these two events share a mechanism that, if disrupted, leads to malformations in both developmental pathways. Expand
Pax-6, a murine paired box gene, is expressed in the developing CNS.
TLDR
The expression pattern of Pax-6 during embryogenesis and the isolation of cDNA clones spanning the entire coding region are described and, in addition to the paired domain, a paired-type homeodomain is contained. Expand
Pax: a murine multigene family of paired box-containing genes.
TLDR
The chromosomal location of all novel Pax genes and of Pax-3 and Pax-7 has been determined and reveals that they are not clustered, suggesting that several Pax genes represent paralogs in mouse and man. Expand
Pax‐3, a novel murine DNA binding protein expressed during early neurogenesis.
TLDR
The isolation and characterization of Pax‐3 is described, a novel murine paired box gene expressed exclusively during embryogenesis that specifically recognizes the e5 sequence present upstream of the Drosophila even‐skipped gene. Expand
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