Paul Ehrlich's magic bullet concept: 100 years of progress

  title={Paul Ehrlich's magic bullet concept: 100 years of progress},
  author={Klaus Strebhardt and Axel Ullrich},
  journal={Nature Reviews Cancer},
Exceptional advances in molecular biology and genetic research have expedited cancer drug development tremendously. The declared paradigm is the development of 'personalized and tailored drugs' that precisely target the specific molecular defects of a cancer patient. It is therefore appropriate to revisit the intellectual foundations of the development of such agents, as many have shown great clinical success. One hundred years ago, Paul Ehrlich, the founder of chemotherapy, received the Nobel… 

The impact of molecular targets in cancer drug development: major hurdles and future strategies

The authors discuss the recent development of targeted cancer drugs and identify major hurdles and highlight future strategies that might improve and accelerate the drug-development process.

Precision Medicine and Complexity

  • D. Aron
  • Biology
    Complex Systems in Medicine
  • 2019
Conceptualizing cancer as a dynamic complex system that emerges from the microenvironment in which it is embedded can help explain observations and raises questions about the possibility of precision medicine for cancer and other conditions as well.

Development of small molecule fluorescent dye drug conjugates in targeted cancer therapy.

  • S. Mrdenovic
  • Chemistry
    American journal of clinical and experimental urology
  • 2021
Since the beginning of the 20th-century use of chemical dyes opened the doors for cancer treatment with the development of Paul Ehrlich’s ground-braking concepts of chemotherapy and the magic bullet

Targeted Immune Therapy as Example of Paul Ehrlich’s “Magic Bullets” Developed More than 100 Years Ago

The application of antibodies in hematology was described by using the example of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and the concept of “magic bullets”, which are drugs that move straight to their target, was developed.

Platinum(IV) Prodrugs – A Step Closer to Ehrlich's Vision?

This work has endeavoured to showcase how targeted Pt(IV) prodrugs may be exploited to not only reduce systemic toxicities associated with modern day chemotherapeutics including classical Pt(II) drugs but also how these pro drugs may overcome resistance issues that have plagued many Chemotherapeutic regimes.

Cancer Drug Resistance: Targets and Therapies

Since these early days of cancer chemotherapy, the increased knowledge of the cancer genome and the development of new drug discovery technologies, such as quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSAR), highthroughput screening (HTS), nuclearmagnetic resonance (NMR), X-ray diffraction, and protein–ligand cocrystallography, have paved the way for targeted andmultitargeted cancer therapeutics.

Emerging Therapeutic Strategies in Breast Cancer

This review article attempts to cover the major developments in experimental therapeutics and how they relate to the understanding of breast cancer and its various biologic subtypes.

Tailoring the Treatment of Melanoma: Implications for Personalized Medicine

This mini-review summarizes the progress made in the field of personalized treatment of melanoma, with an emphasis on targeted therapies, and outlines future directions for treatment, including novel cell-mediated therapies and new potential targets.

Cancer immunotherapy: Breakthrough or “deja vu, all over again”?

  • S. Sell
  • Medicine, Biology
    Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
  • 2017
From the application of Coley’s toxin in the early 1900s to the present clinical trials using immune checkpoint regulatory inhibitors, the history of cancer immunotherapy has consisted of extremely



Antibody targeted drugs as cancer therapeutics

Recent preclinical and clinical data for antibody–drug conjugates and fusion proteins with a special focus on drug components that exert their antitumour effects through normal biological processes are discussed.

Improving the efficacy of antibody-based cancer therapies

A quarter of a century after their advent, monoclonal antibodies have become the most rapidly expanding class of pharmaceuticals for treating a wide variety of human diseases, including cancer, and many innovative approaches stand poised to improve the efficacy of antibody-based therapies.

Expanding the repertoire of RNA interference screens for developing new anticancer drug targets

  • S. Haney
  • Biology, Medicine
    Expert opinion on therapeutic targets
  • 2007
It is considered how RNAi screening can be used to characterize other areas of cancer research that have been proposed to explain the development of clinical cancers, including oncogene addiction/oncogenic shock, cancer stem cells, lineage dependency and the epithelial–mesenchymal transition.

Monoclonal antibody therapy of cancer.

Monoclonal antibodies used in cancer treatment are designed in a lab to target certain antigens that live on the surface of cancer cells that can latch onto the cancer cells and act as a “call to arms” for other disease-fighting warriors in the immune system.

Immunotoxin therapy of cancer.

The structure, physiology, and initial clinical results with immunotoxins are described, which are beginning to define a role for these unique agents in patients with malignancies of minimal bulk in combination with conventional chemoradiotherapy.

Strategies to overcome resistance to targeted protein kinase inhibitors

Structural and mechanistic insights from imatinib-insensitive Bcr–Abl have been exploited to identify second-generation drugs that override acquired target resistance and create a rationale for the development of either multi-targeted protein kinase inhibitors or cocktails of selective antagonists as antitumour drugs.

Maximizing mouse cancer models

It is only now that scientists are realising the full potential of mouse models of cancer and what new approaches are needed to derive the maximum value for cancer patients from this investment.

Novel radiolabeled antibody conjugates

This article reviews the development of radioimmunoconjugates as a new class of cancer therapeutics. Numerous conjugates involving different antigen targets, antibody forms, radionuclides and methods

Cancer revoked: oncogenes as therapeutic targets

  • D. Felsher
  • Medicine, Biology
    Nature Reviews Cancer
  • 2003
Recent findings show that even the brief inactivation of a single oncogene might be sufficient to result in the sustained loss of a neoplastic phenotype. It is therefore possible that the targeted