Patterns of parasitism in monarch butterflies during the breeding season in eastern North America

  title={Patterns of parasitism in monarch butterflies during the breeding season in eastern North America},
  author={D. T. Tyler Flockhart and Anjuli Dabydeen and Dara A. Satterfield and Keith A. Hobson and Leonard I. Wassenaar and D. Ryan Norris},
  journal={Ecological Entomology},
1. Migratory behaviour can result in reduced prevalence of pathogens in host populations. Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain this relationship: (i) ‘migratory escape’, where migrants benefit from escaping pathogen accumulation in contaminated environments; and (ii) ‘migratory culling’, where the selective removal of infected individuals occurs during migration. 
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A. A. E. W. was provided funding from a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) Alexander Graham Bell Canada Graduate Scholarship (CGS D) and an Ontario Graduate Scholarship. The
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