Patterns of male‐specific inter‐population divergence in Europe, West Asia and North Africa

  title={Patterns of male‐specific inter‐population divergence in Europe, West Asia and North Africa},
  author={Patrizia Malaspina and Fulvio Cruciani and Piero Santolamazza and Antonio Torroni and Alessandra Pangrazio and Nejat Akar and V Bakalli and Radim Brdi{\vc}ka and Jadwiga Jaruzelska and Andrey I. Kozlov and Boris A. Malyarchuk and Syed Qasim Mehdi and E. N. Michalodimitrakis and Laurent Varesi and Meriam Memmi and Giuseppe Vona and Richard Villems and Jüri Parik and Val{\'e}ria Romano and Mihaela Stefan and Michele Stenico and Luciano Terrenato and Andrea Novelletto and Rosaria Scozzari},
  journal={Annals of Human Genetics},
We typed 1801 males from 55 locations for the Y‐specific binary markers YAP, DYZ3, SRY10831 and the (CA)n microsatellites YCAII and DYS413. Phylogenetic relationships of chromosomes with the same binary haplotype were condensed in seven large one‐step networks, which accounted for 95% of all chromosomes. Their coalescence ages were estimated based on microsatellite diversity. The three largest and oldest networks undergo sharp frequency changes in three areas. The more recent network 3.1A… 

Tracing past human male movements in northern/eastern Africa and western Eurasia: new clues from Y-chromosomal haplogroups E-M78 and J-M12.

The geographic and quantitative analyses of haplogroup and microsatellite diversity is strongly suggestive of a northeastern African origin of E-M78, with a corridor for bidirectional migrations between northeastern and eastern Africa and trans-Mediterranean migrations directly from northern Africa to Europe.

Phylogeography of Y-chromosome haplogroup I reveals distinct domains of prehistoric gene flow in europe.

Haplogroup I, the only major clade of the Y phylogeny that is widespread over Europe but virtually absent elsewhere, is analyzed, in detail, and it is revealed that it underwent a postglacial expansion and marked the human colonization of Sardinia approximately 9,000 years ago.

Y chromosome evidence for Anglo-Saxon mass migration.

Using novel population genetic models that incorporate both mass migration and continuous gene flow, it is concluded that these striking patterns are best explained by a substantial migration of Anglo-Saxon Y chromosomes into Central England but not into North Wales.

Y chromosomal haplogroup J as a signature of the post-neolithic colonization of Europe

Dating estimates confirmed the presence of a major population structuring at the time of spread of haplogroup J in Europe and a punctuation in the peopling of this continent in the post-Neolithic, compatible with the expansion of the Greek world.

Reconstructing the genetic history of Italians: new insights from a male (Y-chromosome) perspective

A complex genetic structure reflecting the multifaceted peopling pattern of the Peninsula emerged: southern populations show high similarity with those from the Middle East and Southern Balkans, while those from Northern Italy are close to populations of North-Western Europe and the Northern Balkans.

A multistep process for the dispersal of a Y chromosomal lineage in the Mediterranean area

In this work we focus on a microsatellite‐defined Y‐chromosomal lineage (network 1.2) identified by us and reported in previous studies, whose geographic distribution and antiquity appear to be

A signal, from human mtDNA, of postglacial recolonization in Europe.

The present study shows that the dissection of mtDNA variation into small and well-defined evolutionary units is an essential step in the identification of spatial frequency patterns, and promises to be an efficient strategy for inferring features of human prehistory.

Y chromosome variation in Europe: Continental and local processes in the formation of the extant gene pool

The emerging picture for the composition of the male gene pool of the continent is illustrated, but local peculiarities that represent departures from the main trends are also highlighted, in order to illustrate the main unifying feature, i.e. the overlay of recent patterns onto more ancient ones.

Armenian Y chromosome haplotypes reveal strong regional structure within a single ethno-national group

The haplotype distribution and pattern of genetic distances suggest a high degree of genetic isolation in the mountainous southern and eastern regions, while in the northern, central and western regions there has been greater admixture with populations from neighbouring Middle Eastern countries.



Network analyses of Y-chromosomal types in Europe, northern Africa, and western Asia reveal specific patterns of geographic distribution.

It is shown that the phenetic relationships among haplotypes, represented as a network, result largely from common descent and subsequent molecular radiation, and the grouping of haplotypes of the same network thus fits an evolutionarily relevant criterion.

Out of Africa and back again: nested cladistic analysis of human Y chromosome variation.

It is inferred that one of the oldest events in the nested cladistic analysis was a range expansion out of Africa which resulted in the complete replacement of Y chromosomes throughout the Old World, a finding consistent with many versions of the Out of Africa Replacement Model.

Y‐chromosome specific YCAII, DYS19 and YAP polymorphisms in human populations: a comparative study

The pattern of populations' genetic affinities inferred from the three markers considered altogether suggests a strong genetic structure that, with a few exceptions, broadly corresponds to the linguistic relatedness and/or geographic location of the sampled populations.

Dual origins of Finns revealed by Y chromosome haplotype variation.

Genetic evidence for the dual origins of Finns is presented by evaluating the pattern of Y chromosome variation in 280 unrelated males from nine Finnish provinces and revealing two major star-shaped clusters of Y haplotypes, indicative of a population expansion from two common Y chromosomes.

Further characteristics of proto-European Y chromosomes

It is suggested that the 49a,f/TaqI Ht 15, YCAII a5-b1 Ht, DYS19-190 bp and DYS392-254 bp Y chromosome could represent a component of the proto-European gene pool.

Y-chromosome variation and Irish origins

Ireland's position on the western edge of Europe suggests that the genetics of its population should have been relatively undisturbed by the demographic movements that have shaped variation on the mainland, but significant differences in genetic frequency between those of Irish Gaelic and of foreign origin are found.

Genetic evidence for a higher female migration rate in humans

It is found that Y chromosome variants tend to be more localized geographically than those of mtDNA and the autosomes, and the reduction of variation within populations for Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is of such magnitude that differences in the effective population sizes of the sexes alone are insufficient to produce the observation.

The central Siberian origin for native American Y chromosomes.

This study suggests a predominantly central Siberian origin for Native American paternal lineages for those who could have migrated to the Americas during the Upper Pleistocene.

Differential structuring of human populations for homologous X and Y microsatellite loci.

Whereas the results for the X-linked loci agreed with a model of greater antiquity for the African populations, those for DYS413 showed a confounding pattern that is apparently at odds with such a model, suggesting differential structuring for homologous X and Y microsatellite polymorphisms.

Zones of sharp genetic change in Europe are also linguistic boundaries.

  • G. BarbujaniR. Sokal
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1990
Findings from "Wombling" support a model of genetic differentiation in Europe in which the genetic structure of the population is determined mainly by gene flow and admixture, rather than by adaptation to varying environmental conditions.