Patterns of bruising in preschool children—a longitudinal study

  title={Patterns of bruising in preschool children—a longitudinal study},
  author={Alison Mary Kemp and Frank Dunstan and Diane Nuttall and Melinda Hamilton and Peter W. Collins and Sabine Ann Maguire},
  journal={Archives of Disease in Childhood},
  pages={426 - 431}
Introduction This study aims to identify the prevalence and pattern of bruises in preschool children over time, and explore influential variables Methods Prospective longitudinal study of children (<6 years) where bruises were recorded on a body chart, weekly for up to 12 weeks. The number and location of bruises were analysed according to development. Longitudinal analysis was performed using multilevel modelling. Results 3523 bruises recorded from 2570 data collections from 328 children (mean… 
Patterns of bruising in preschool children with inherited bleeding disorders: a longitudinal study
In this age group for children with unexplained bruising, it is essential that coagulation studies are done early to avoid the erroneous diagnosis of physical abuse when the child actually has a serious bleeding disorder, however a blood test compatible with a mild/moderate bleeding disorder cannot be assumed to be the cause of bruising.
Childhood bruising distribution observed from eight mechanisms of unintentional injury
Certain bruise distributions were rarely observed, namely multiple bruises from a single mechanism, petechiae and bruising to the ears, neck or genitalia, which have the potential to aid an assessment of the plausibility of the explanation given for a child with bruising.
Policies on Bruises in Pre-Mobile Children : Why we need improved standards for policy making
  • Medicine
  • 2018
This review of the 91 English children’s services departments with specific policies on bruising in premobile children found a major disjuncture between research evidence and its interpretation in
A Prospective Study of the Causes of Bruises in Premobile Infants.
More than half of premobile infants with initially unexplained bruises were found to be abused, and abuse was as likely for infants identified by primary care and ED providers as for those identified by CAPs.
Bruising characteristics from unintentional injuries in children: the ‘green flag’ study
  • M. Pierce
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Archives of Disease in Childhood
  • 2017
Bruising in young children is probably the most overlooked or underappreciated injury prior to a child being severely injured or killed at the hands of their caregiver/s. In fact, 28%–64% of children
Policies on bruises in premobile children: Why we need improved standards for policymaking
This review of the 91 English children's services departments with specific policies on bruising in premobile children found a major disjuncture between research evidence and its interpretation in
Surveying paediatricians’ assessment of childhood bruising patterns
The paediatricians’ role is to assess the history and presentation of bruising to determine its cause, and children at high risk for further serious abusive injury can present initially with minor bruising.
Can TEN4 distinguish bruises from abuse, inherited bleeding disorders or accidents?
Data support further child protection investigations of a positive TEN4 screen in any pre-mobile children with a bruise and in mobile children with more than one bruise, and IBD needs to be excluded in these children.
Medicines for tummy-aches: what works?
  • Medicine
    Archives of Disease in Childhood
  • 2015
Bruising characteristics discriminating physical child abuse from accidental trauma and patterns of bruising in preschool children—a longitudinal study are studied.


Bruises in infants and toddlers: those who don't cruise rarely bruise. Puget Sound Pediatric Research Network.
Bruises are rare in normal infants and precruisers and become common among cruisers and walkers and should lead to consideration of abuse or illness as causative in infants younger than 9 months.
The prevalence and distribution of bruising in babies
A prevalence rate and distribution of bruising in babies is produced and sets a baseline from which to work when assessing bruises and Clinicians need to assess a baby’s level of development when considering whether a bruise is accidental.
Normal bruises in pre-school children
A pilot study of normal bruises in normal 3to 4-year-old children in a Manchester day nursery, which highlights pathological trauma just as it is possible to contrast accidental and nonaccidental trauma when abused children are admitted to the lively community of a children's ward.
Are there patterns of bruising in childhood which are diagnostic or suggestive of abuse? A systematic review
Investigating what patterns of bruising are diagnostic or suggestive of child abuse by means of a systematic review found bruises in non-mobile infants, over soft tissue areas, that carry the imprint of an implement and multiple bruises of uniform shape are suggestive of abuse.
Can you age bruises accurately in children? A systematic review
A bruise cannot accurately be aged from clinical assessment in vivo or on a photograph and should be avoided in child protection proceedings, according to the practice of estimating the age of a bruise from its colour.
Systematic reviews of bruising in relation to child abuse-what have we learnt: an overview of review updates.
  • S. Maguire, M. Mann
  • Medicine
    Evidence-based child health : a Cochrane review journal
  • 2013
Systematic Reviews of bruising challenged accepted wisdom regarding ageing of bruises, which had no scientific basis; stimulated higher quality research on patterns of bruises distinguishing abusive and non-abusive bruising patterns, and highlighted the benefits of regular updates of these reviews.
Bruising Characteristics Discriminating Physical Child Abuse From Accidental Trauma
The body region- and age-based bruising clinical decision rule model functions as a clinically sensible screening tool to identify young children who require further evaluation for abuse.
Recent skin injuries in normal children.
The majority of normal children (after the age of 9 months) and adolescents, who do not consult for trauma, had 1 or more recent skin injuries, mostly bruises, which are more prevalent in the summer in a region with a temperate climate and can be present on all parts of the body.
Accidents and resulting injuries in premobile infants: data from the ALSPAC study
Falls in young infants are common while burns are rare, and injuries from falls are infrequent, predominantly trivial, and almost entirely confined to the head.
Are facial bruises in babies ever accidental?
Sir, In Aviemore in April 1982, I presented to the British Paediatric Association's meeting the concept of the 'gently battered child'. The numerical results quoted at that time have since been