Patterns in Early Embryonic Motility: Effects of Size and Environmental Temperature on Vertical Velocities of Sinking and Swimming Echinoid Blastulae

@article{Mcdonald2004PatternsIE,
  title={Patterns in Early Embryonic Motility: Effects of Size and Environmental Temperature on Vertical Velocities of Sinking and Swimming Echinoid Blastulae},
  author={Kathryn A. Mcdonald},
  journal={The Biological Bulletin},
  year={2004},
  volume={207},
  pages={93 - 102}
}
Early embryonic swimming is widespread among marine invertebrates, but quantitative information about swimming behaviors is scarce. Swimming may affect encounters with predators, positioning in the water column, and nutrient absorption. Measured rates and patterns of swimming and sinking for blastulae of four eastern Pacific echinoid species show that sinking speeds equal or exceed swimming speeds. Swimming speed scaled negatively with embryo size, though sinking speed did not scale with size… 
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