Patterns in Early Embryonic Motility: Effects of Size and Environmental Temperature on Vertical Velocities of Sinking and Swimming Echinoid Blastulae

  title={Patterns in Early Embryonic Motility: Effects of Size and Environmental Temperature on Vertical Velocities of Sinking and Swimming Echinoid Blastulae},
  author={Kathryn A. Mcdonald},
  journal={The Biological Bulletin},
  pages={93 - 102}
Early embryonic swimming is widespread among marine invertebrates, but quantitative information about swimming behaviors is scarce. Swimming may affect encounters with predators, positioning in the water column, and nutrient absorption. Measured rates and patterns of swimming and sinking for blastulae of four eastern Pacific echinoid species show that sinking speeds equal or exceed swimming speeds. Swimming speed scaled negatively with embryo size, though sinking speed did not scale with size… 
Earliest ciliary swimming effects vertical transport of planktonic embryos in turbulence and shear flow
Swimming by newly hatched blastulae by D. excentricus should support upward migration in turbulence characteristic of coastal surface waters, whereas species differences in passive stability and swimming responses to shear may lead to differences in vertical transport and subsequent dispersal.
Swimming performance in early development and the "other" consequences of egg size for ciliated planktonic larvae.
Key parameters that characterize the upward swimming speed of ciliated spheroidal larvae moving at very low Reynolds numbers are presented, and the performance of trochophore larvae provides support for hypothesized scaling relationships, and also for the concept of a standard in swimming speed.
Temperature and diet modified swimming behaviors of larval sand dollar
Video-tracking of free-swimming larvae can yield quantitative data to inform biophysically coupled models that better predict consequences of larval dispersal for adult population dynamics under current and future environmental conditions.
Ontogenetic shifts in swimming capacity of echinoderm propagules: a comparison of species with planktotrophic and lecithotrophic larvae
Select metrics of swimming capacity in four co-occurring species of North Atlantic echinoderms displaying different types of pelagic development were explored, tested the hypotheses that swimming capacity of propagules increases with progression through developmental stages and with increasing seawater temperature and suggested that phylogenetically conserved, ontogenetic patterns of swimmingcapacity may supersede the contribution of larval nutritional mode.
Arms of larval seastars of Pisaster ochraceus provide versatility in muscular and ciliary swimming
Morphology of brachiolariae suggests that these uses of muscles in swimming evolved before divergence of the families Stichasteridae and Asteriidae within forcipulate asteroids, and further distinguishes the swimming of these braches from swimming by larvae of other echinoderms and larvae of acorn worms in the sister phylum Hemichordata.
A Novel Report of Hatching Plasticity in the Phylum Echinodermata
Plasticity in the timing and stage of hatching of embryos of the sand dollar Echinarachnius parma is reported in response to reductions in salinity, suggesting significant intraspecific variation in developmental responses to salinity.
A field experiment demonstrating risk on the seafloor for planktonic embryos
Most solitary marine eggs are shed into the plankton. Presumably the seafloor is more dangerous than the plankton for small solitary embryos, but estimates of benthic mortality of solitary embryos
Multiple origins of feeding head larvae by the Early Cambrian
Fossils, functional morphology, and inferred homologies indicate that feeding head larvae existed by the Early Cambrian in members of three major clades of animals: ecdysozoans, lophotrochozoans and deuterostomes.
Larval ecology of echinoids
  • A. Metaxas
  • Environmental Science
    Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science
  • 2020


Evolution of Fast Development of Planktonic Embryos to Early Swimming
Time to first swimming correlated significantly with time from first to second cleavage (first cell cycle) in analyses of all embryos sampled and separately within the Spiralia and Echinodermata, and suggests that allocation of time to multiplication of cells versus differentiation of cells is resolved differently in species with different types of locomotion.
Directionality and Swimming Speeds in Predator-Prey and Male-Female Interactions of Euchaeta rimana, a Subtropical Marine Copepod
  • J. Yen
  • Environmental Science
  • 1988
This examination showed how the sexual dichotomy in morphology and feeding was reflected in the swimming behavior of Euchaeta rimana, and Directional swimming by the female predatory copepod supports the predictions of models in which encounter rate was maximized by swimming orthogonally to their mates and their prey.
Behaviour in flow: perspectives on the distribution and dispersion of meroplanktonic larvae in the water column
The ability of larvae to behaviourally regulate their position at scales of micrometres to metres when exposed to turbulent fluid motion in the water column, as evidenced in the benthic boundary layer, is unknown.
Scaling of Gelatinous Clutches: Effects of Siblings' Competition for Oxygen on Clutch Size and Parental Investment per Offspring
It is hypothesized that spacing of embryos by gel enhances delivery of oxygen but that gel is organically costly, and for aquatic gelatinous clutches, requirements for oxygen supply can affect trade‐offs involving clutch thickness and parental investment per offspring.
Pre-feeding embryos of antarctic and temperate echinoderms use dissolved organic material for growth and metabolic needs
Results of experiments conducted in situ and in the laboratory show that embryos could, in some cases, meet the metabolic costs of embryonic development and increase in organic weight (biomass) prior to being able to feed on particles.
Natural mortality of marine invertebrate larvae
Results from laboratory investigations suggest that mortality rates change with larval size or age, and theoretical exercises indicate that rates of larval mortality are correlated with duration of the planktonic period.
Role of Encapsulation in Invertebrate Life Histories
  • J. Pechenik
  • Environmental Science
    The American Naturalist
  • 1979
A simple probability argument is constructed which suggests that even a short period of encapsulation can significantly reduce mortality during mixed development if daily mortality rates in the plankton are below some critical level.
Predatory and suspension feeding of the copepod Acartia tonsa in turbulent environments
The findings suggest that prey selection in A. tonsa may be partly governed by turbulence in the ocean, and that ambush-mode feeding is much more dependent on turbulence than suspensionmode feeding.
The evidence suggests that setae can function in larval defense against an array of predators with different feeding mechanisms, but that swimming may increase, decrease, or have no effect upon rate of predation, depending upon predator species.