Early-life exposure to EDCs: role in childhood obesity and neurodevelopment
- Joseph M. Braun
- Nature Reviews Endocrinology
Exposure to triclosan, an antimicrobial used in many consumer products, is ubiquitous in the United States, yet only limited data are available on the predictors and variability of exposure, particularly in children. We examined the patterns, variability, and predictors of urinary triclosan concentrations in 389 mother-child pairs enrolled in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study from 2003 to 2006. We quantified triclosan in 3 urine samples collected from women between 16 weeks of pregnancy and birth and 6 urine samples collected from children between the ages of 1-8 years. For maternal and child samples, we calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) to assess triclosan reproducibility and identified sociodemographic predictors of triclosan. Among 8 year old children, we examined associations between triclosan and personal-care product use. We detected triclosan in >70% of urine samples. Median maternal triclosan varied across pregnancy from 17 to 11 ng/mL, while in children, median concentrations increased from 3.6 to 17 ng/mL over the first 4 years of life, declining slightly at later ages. Triclosan reproducibility was fair to good during pregnancy and for child samples taken weeks apart (ICCs = 0.4-0.6) but poor for annual child samples (ICCs = 0.2-0.4). Triclosan was 66% (95% CI: 29-113) higher in 8 year olds using hand soap compared to nonusers and increased monotonically with hand-washing frequency. Toothpaste use in children was also positively associated with triclosan. Our results suggest that urinary triclosan concentrations have modest stability over weeks to months; children are exposed to triclosan through the use of some personal-care products.