Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning


This beautifully produced book is intended for advanced undergraduates, PhD students, and researchers and practitioners, primarily in machine learning or allied areas. The theoretical framework is, as far as possible, that of Bayesian decision theory, taking advantage of the computational tools now available for practical implementation of such methods. Readers should have a good grasp of calculus and linear algebra and, preferably, some prior familiarity with probability theory. Two examples are used in the first chapter for motivation – recognition of handwritten digits, and polynomial curve fitting. These typify two classes of problem which are the subject of this book. These are: regression with a categorical outcome variable, otherwise known as discriminant analysis or supervised classification; and regression with a continuous or perhaps ordinal outcome variable. A strong feature is the use of geometric illustration and intuition, noting however that 2-or 3-dimensional analogues are not always effective for higher numbers of dimensions. There is helpful commentary that explains why, e.g., linear models might be useful in one context and neural networks in another. The discussion of Support Vector Machines notes, among other limitations, that the generation of decision values rather than probabilities prevents use of a Bayesion decision theoretic framework. Chapters 1 and 2 develop Bayesian decision theory, and introduce commonly used families of probability distributions. Chapters 3 and 4 cover linear models for regression and classification. Chapters that follow treat neural networks, kernel methods, sparse kernel machines (including Support Vector Machines), graphical models, mixture models and EM, approximate inference (variational Bayes and expectation propagation), sampling methods (leading into MCMC and Gibbs sampling), Latent Variables (PCA, factor analysis and extensions), hidden Markov models and linear dynamical systems, and combining models (Bayesian model averaging, committees, boosting and conditional mixture models). The discussion of MCMC and Gibbs sampling makes no direct mention of the practical issues of checking mixing and stopping rules. These have perhaps been left over for the upcoming companion volume, due in 2008, that will address practical issues in the implementation of machine learning methods.

DOI: 10.1117/1.2819119

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All of Statistics. A Concise Course in Statistical Inference

  • L Wasserman
  • 2003
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