Patrolling the Boundaries of Gender: Beliefs, Attitudes and Behaviors Toward Trans and Gender Diverse People in Portuguese Adolescents

  title={Patrolling the Boundaries of Gender: Beliefs, Attitudes and Behaviors Toward Trans and Gender Diverse People in Portuguese Adolescents},
  author={Mar{\'i}a Victoria Carrera-Fern{\'a}ndez and Ana-Elisa Armstrong de Almeida and Xos{\'e}-Manuel Cid-Fern{\'a}ndez and Pablo Vallejo-Medina and Yolanda Rodr{\'i}guez-Castro},
  journal={International Journal of Sexual Health},
  pages={40 - 56}
Abstract Objectives: This study had a double goal: (i) analyzing the beliefs, attitudes and behaviors of Portuguese adolescents regarding trans and gender diverse people; and (ii) validating the short version of the Genderism and Transphobia Scale. Methods: A sample of 1,005 Portuguese adolescents aged between 13 and 18 years took part in the study. Results: Results indicated that boys exhibited more negative attitudes toward trans and gender diverse people than girls did, and girls exhibited… 
2 Citations
Incidencia del Estado de Alarma en la Desigualdad Escolar de la Adolescencia Acogida por el Sistema de Protección en Galicia
Students with administrative protection records are the protagonists of most of the academic itineraries of school exclusion. The declaration of the state of alarm, motivated by the health alert of


Portuguese Adolescents' Attitudes Toward Sexual Minorities: Transphobia, Homophobia, and Gender Role Beliefs
A significant gender effect was found with males being more negative toward sexual minorities than females, but these negative attitudes were more extreme toward gay men than toward lesbian women.
Spanish Adolescents’ Attitudes toward Transpeople: Proposal and Validation of a Short Form of the Genderism and Transphobia Scale
In the study, boys exhibited significantly more negative attitudes toward transpeople than girls did, both in the affective/cognitive dimension (Transphobia/Genderism) and in the behavioral dimension (Gender Bashing).
Two Sexes, Two Genders Only: Measuring Attitudes toward Transgender Individuals in Poland
Transphobia is an under-examined but important type of prejudice to study in Polish culture. Poland is a country where a majority of transgender people feel discriminated against. There is a need for
Bullying Among Spanish Secondary Education Students
It was demonstrated that boys scored significantly higher on all the variables assessed except on benevolent sexism, and an inverse pattern was observed: Hostile sexism predicted more favorable attitudes toward bullying when mediated by instrumental gender traits.
The Ambivalent Sexism Inventory: Differentiating hostile and benevolent sexism.
The authors present a theory of sexism formulated as ambivalence toward women and validate a corresponding measure, the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI). The ASI taps 2 positively correlated
The Development and Validation of the Genderism and Transphobia Scale
A series of three studies were conducted to develop and validate a scale to measure violence, harassment, and discrimination toward cross-dressers, transgenderists, and transsexuals. In Study 1, we
Measuring Hong Kong Undergraduate Students’ Attitudes Towards Transpeople
Hill and Willoughby’s (Sex Roles, 53:531–544, 2005) Genderism and Transphobia Scale (GTS), originally developed in Canada, was examined with a Hong Kong sample. Undergraduate students, 82 female and
Gender and Bullying: Application of a Three-Factor Model of Gender Stereotyping
The Three-Factor Model (Choi, Fuqua & Newman, 2008, 2009), which consists of a feminine factor and two masculine ones, seems especially appropriate for explaining the influence of gender-stereotypic
The Social Determinants of Polymorphous Prejudice Against Lesbian and Gay Individuals: the Case of Portugal
In the present article, we analyze polymorphous prejudice against lesbians and gays according to a sample of Portuguese heterosexual individuals. We tested the differential importance of
Gender Differences in Correlates of Homophobia and Transphobia
A scale of prejudice against transgender individuals was developed, validated, and contrasted with a homophobia measure in 153 female and 157 male US college undergraduates. For both sexes,