Penile cancer is a rare but destructive disease in Western populations. In the United Kingdom, penile cancer accounts for <1% of all new cases of cancer and <1% of deaths due to cancer every year (see Table 1). Surgical removal of the cancer is the primary form of treatment. This involves surgical excision of the primary tumour and of involved inguinal lymph nodes. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are rarely helpful, with their use restricted either to adjuvant use or for palliative treatment of extensive disease. In treating the primary tumour, the standard of care is to provide a surgical cure (ie, excising the tumour and a margin of normal penile tissue) while maintaining the function of the penis. The traditional view was that at least a 2-cm margin of normal tissue should be removed, but recent publications suggest that more conservative surgery may be safe [1,2]. The advantage of such organ-preserving surgery is intuitively advantageous to the patient in that penile function can be better preserved, but the evidence to support this view is limited at present.