BACKGROUND & AIMS Patients with diverticulitis develop recurrences and chronic abdominal symptoms. Recurrent diverticulitis is seldom complicated, which has led to a conservative treatment approach. However, some studies suggest that surgical intervention reduces recurrence and chronic abdominal problems. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of quality of life (QOL) and other patient-reported outcomes (PROs) after conservative vs surgical treatment of uncomplicated diverticulitis. METHODS We searched the CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycInfo databases for randomized trials and cohort studies reporting on QOL or other PROs after conservative or operative treatment for uncomplicated diverticulitis from January 1990 through May 2014. Eight PROs were defined and graded according to their clinical relevance. Risk of bias was assessed by using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the results. The review protocol was registered through PROSPERO (CRD42013005854). RESULTS We analyzed data from 21 studies that comprised 1858 patients; all studies had a high risk of bias. There were no head-to-head comparisons of gastrointestinal symptoms or general QOL between elective surgical vs conservative treatment of recurrent diverticulitis. On the basis of Short-Form 36 scores, patients had higher QOL scores after elective laparoscopic resection (73.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 65.7-81.1) than conservative treatment (58.1; 95% CI, 47.2-69.1). A lower proportion of patients had gastrointestinal symptoms after laparoscopic surgery (9%; 95% CI, 4%-14%) than conservative treatment (36%; 95% CI, 27%-45%) in all cohorts and in 1 trial comparing these treatments (odds ratio, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.16-0.7). The proportion of patients with chronic abdominal pain after elective laparoscopy was 11% (95% CI, 1%-21%) compared with 38% (95% CI, 19%-56%) after conservative treatment. CONCLUSIONS On the basis of a systematic review and meta-analysis, patients have better QOL and fewer symptoms after laparoscopic surgery vs conservative treatment. However, studies of PROs for treatment of diverticulitis were of low quality.