Patient refusal of hydration and nutrition. An alternative to physician-assisted suicide or voluntary active euthanasia.

  title={Patient refusal of hydration and nutrition. An alternative to physician-assisted suicide or voluntary active euthanasia.},
  author={J L Bernat and Bernard Gert and R. Peter Mogielnicki},
  journal={Archives of internal medicine},
  volume={153 24},
PUBLIC AND scholarly debates on legalizing physician-assisted suicide (PAS) and voluntary active euthanasia (VAE) have increased dramatically in recent years.1-5 These debates have highlighted a s ignif icant moral controversy between those who regard PAS and VAE as morally permissible and those who do not. Unfortunately, the adversarial nature of this controversy has led both sides to ignore an alternative that avoids moral controversy altogether and has fewer associated practical problems in… 

Voluntary Death: A Comparison of Terminal Dehydration and Physician-Assisted Suicide

Clinical, ethical, and policy issues relating to terminal dehydration as an alternative to physician-assisted suicide are analyzed, building on the foundation laid in 1993 by Bernat and colleagues in their seminal article on patient refusal of hydration and nutrition.

Assisted Suicide Compared with Refusal of Treatment: A Valid Distinction?

After examining competing conceptual, clinical, and ethical considerations, it is argued in favor of maintaining a distinction between physician-assisted suicide and voluntary euthanasia.

Refusals/Withdrawals and Physician-Assisted Suicide

An issue of causality in a particular kind of withdrawal case that has come to figure prominently in discussions of physician-assisted suicide, namely, cases of withdrawal of food and hydration is given.

Slow euthanasia.

It is suggested that slow euthanasia is regularly employed in the last few days of life in end-of-life care, and practices seem to indicate a tacit acceptance by the medical community of voluntary euthanasia under particular circum~tances, but they also reflect professional reasonings that may be ethically muddled.

Special Section: Alpha and Omega: Ethics at the Edges of Life

This manuscript plans to compare end-of-life care in the United States and the Netherlands with regard to underlying values, justifications, and practices, and explore the risks and benefits of each system for a real patient who was faced with a common end- of-life clinical dilemma.

The Autonomy Turn in Physician‐Assisted Suicide

  • T. Beauchamp
  • Philosophy
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 2000
The recent history of euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, and refusals of treatment in the United States is reviewed, and it is maintained that concerns about patient autonomy are the most important, but not the sole, factors driving current controversies and changes in policy.

Voluntary stopping of eating and drinking: is medical support ethically justified?

It is demonstrated, on the basis of paradigmatic clinical cases, that medically supported VSED is, at least in some instances, tantamount to assisted suicide.

[Hastening death by voluntary stopping of eating and drinking. A new mode of assisted suicide?]

It is very difficult to consider this practice of voluntary stopping of eating and drinking as anything other than a type of suicide, and healthcare workers should consider it alien to medical ethos and good clinical practice.

The Debate over Physician-Assisted Suicide: Empirical Data and Convergent Views

The debate about physician-assisted suicide in the United States has been contentious. Although the U.S. Supreme Court recently ruled that there is no constitutionally protected right to

Voluntary stopping of eating and drinking in the age of medical assistance in dying: ethical considerations for physicians

The legal and ethical literature as regards VSED is critically reviewed and new standards of practice are proposed.