Patient perceptions of factors leading to spasmodic dysphonia: A combined clinical experience of 350 patients

@article{Childs2011PatientPO,
  title={Patient perceptions of factors leading to spasmodic dysphonia: A combined clinical experience of 350 patients},
  author={Lesley F Childs and Scott Rickert and Thomas Murry and Andrew Blitzer and Lucian Sulica},
  journal={The Laryngoscope},
  year={2011},
  volume={121}
}
Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is an idiopathic voice disorder that is characterized by either a strained, strangled voice quality or a breathy voice with aphonic segments of connected speech. It has been suggested that environmental factors play a role in triggering the onset. Clinical observation suggests that some patients associate onset with specific events or factors while others do not. The purpose of this study was to examine a large database of SD patients to determine if specific triggers… 
Spasmodic Dysphonia.
TLDR
Diagnosis is challenging as SD can coexist with other neuromuscular disorders with voice symptoms, and the condition can involve the larynx alone, or it can be associated with a spectrum of head and neck dystonias such as blepharospasm.
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  • 2014
Spasmodic Dysphonia (Laryngeal Dystonia)
Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) or laryngeal dystonia is a focal voice disorder that produces involuntary spasms of the vocal folds, resulting in a strained-strangled voice production. Symptoms of SD come
Spasmodic Dysphonia: A Review. Part 1: Pathogenic Factors
TLDR
The purpose of this review is to describe the recent advances in identifying possible factors involved in the pathogenesis of spasmodic dysphonia, a task-specific focal laryngeal dystonia characterized by irregular and uncontrolled voice breaks.
Demographics and coexisting tremor, cervical dystonia and vocal fold disorders in a group of patients with spasmodic dysphonia
TLDR
Patients who were older at spasmodic dysphonia diagnosis were significantly more likely to have co-existing cervical dystonia and nonvocal tremor and patients who were younger at SD diagnosis had no co- existing neurological diseases or vocal disorders.
Laryngeal Sensory Symptoms in Spasmodic Dysphonia.
The Mayo Clinic Arizona Spasmodic Dysphonia Experience
TLDR
The Mayo Clinic Arizona SD experience compares to prior reports and reveals a female preponderance, onset in middle age, infrequent hereditary pattern, high co-occurrence of VT, and low co-Occurrence of other dystonias.
Epidemiologic Advances in Spasmodic Dysphonia
TLDR
A summary of recent epidemiologic and socioemotional research advances involving the onset, course, risk factors, and psychosocial impact of spasmodic dysphonia is provided.
Laryngeal dystonia gravidarum: Sudden onset of adductor spasmodic dysphonia in pregnancy
The purpose of this study was to identify the presence or absence of known factors related to onset of adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) in a population with sudden onset during or after pregnancy.
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References

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TLDR
Risk factors associated with other movement disorders were evaluated in patients with spasmodic dysphonia and no known etiology or cure was found.
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TLDR
Histologic examination of segments of the recurrent laryngeal nerve removed from patients with spastic dysphonia has revealed myelin abnormalities in 30% of the nerves examined.
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TLDR
Findings include: reduced inhibition in different levels of the central nervous system, maladaptive plasticity, e.g. in the somatosensory cortex and in the basal ganglia and alterations in sensorimotor processing.
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TLDR
Botulinum toxin A injection of the laryngeal hyperfunctional muscles has been found over the past 12 years to be the treatment of choice to control the dystonic symptoms in most patients with spasmodic dysphonia.
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TLDR
Videolaryngoscopy showed an effective reduction of intrinsic laryngeal muscle hyperfunction with less effect on extrinsic muscle activity in patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia who received unilateral treatment of the thyroarytenoid muscle.
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TLDR
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TLDR
Spastic dysphonia is a condition producing a strain‐strangle phonation and most of these patients are classified as having focal laryngeal dystonia, a disorder of central motor processing.
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