Pathways to the development of borderline personality disorder.

  title={Pathways to the development of borderline personality disorder.},
  author={Mary C. Zanarini and Frances R. Frankenburg},
  journal={Journal of personality disorders},
  volume={11 1},
The available empirical evidence concerning the etiology of borderline personality disorder is reviewed. A tripartite model of the development of BPD is then presented. This model has three elements: a traumatic childhood (broadly defined), a vulnerable (hyperbolic) temperament, and a triggering event or series of events. The authors conclude that each borderline patient has a unique pathway to the development of BPD that is a painful variation on an unfortunate but familiar theme. 
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