Pathophysiology of the beta-adrenoceptor system in chronic heart failure: consequences for treatment with agonists, partial agonists or antagonists?

The human heart contains both beta 1-adrenoceptors and a considerable number of beta 2-adrenoceptors, both of which bring about positive inotropic and chronotropic effects of beta-adrenoceptor agonists in vitro and in vivo. In chronic heart failure, the decrease in beta-adrenoceptor function is related to the severity of the disease. However, both cardiac… CONTINUE READING