Pathophysiology of heart failure.

  title={Pathophysiology of heart failure.},
  author={Massimo Chiariello and Pasquale Perrone-Filardi},
  journal={Mineral and electrolyte metabolism},
  volume={25 1-2},
Heart failure is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in Western countries. Common etiology is mostly represented by ischemic and hypertensive heart disease. Clinically, heart failure can be defined as an impaired cardiac performance, unable to meet the energy requirements of the periphery. Pathophysiologically, the clinical onset of heart failure symptoms already represents an advanced stage of disease when compensatory mechanisms triggered by the underlying decrease in contractility are… CONTINUE READING
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