Pathophysiology of Graves’ Ophthalmopathy: A Literature Review


Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO), an autoimmune condition associated with Graves’ disease (GD), occurs at a prevalence of nearly 40% in patients diagnosed with GD. Ocular involvement is probably due to the presence of autoantibodies in the orbital tissues, regardless of the control state of thyroid hormones in individuals with GD, even during euthyroid or… (More)