The high rate of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty obviously depends on multiple factors. Predictors for the clinical outcome seem to be the selection of lesion morphology, the acute result and the biological vessel response in the first months after treatment. Thrombus formation and recoil have been considered to be pivotal events. Thus, anticoagulation and Ca-antagonists were routinely applied after treatment. Multiple studies with medical intervention have been performed, mostly with anticoagulants. However, no effective reduction of restenosis has been achieved so far. Analysis of autopsy tissue obtained after angioplasty indicated the importance of early vascular wall "response to injury" that might as a consequence lead to restenosis formation. This was confirmed by systematic experimental data. With introduction of directional atherectomy "biopsies" of primary and restenotic tissue were obtained. Thus, a subtile diagnostic spectrum including histological, immunohistochemical, electron microscopical, and molecular tissue analysis could be established. In vitro cultures of obtained tissue were performed routinely. They enable a characterization of proliferative and synthetic cellular features. Moreover, the effects of therapeutic measures can be quantified and used for pre-clinical screening. To date, the above described methods indicate as pivotal event the angioplasty induced transformation of contractile myocytes to a synthesizing type of myocytes. The transformation to synthetic active cells is not device dependent, but seems to be a major feature of restenosis. This process is mostly terminated in a period of 3-6 months. To accelerate this physiologic termination would be one interesting therapeutic option. Alternatively, special local drug delivery devices could be used to administer sufficient antiproliferative drugs at the site that needs to be treated.