Inflammation is an important indicator of tissue injury. In the acute form, there is usually accumulation of fluids and plasma components in the affected tissues. Platelet activation and the appearance in blood of abnormally increased numbers of polymorphonucleocytes, lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages usually occur. Infectious disorders such as sepsis, meningitis, respiratory infection, urinary tract infection, viral infection, and bacterial infection usually induce an inflammatory response. Chronic inflammation is often associated with diabetes mellitus, acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, kidney diseases, and certain auto-immune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, organ failures and other disorders with an inflammatory component or etiology. The disorder may occur before inflammation is apparent. Markers of inflammation such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and urinary trypsin inhibitors have changed our appraisal of acute events such as myocardial infarction; the infarct may be a response to acute infection and (or) inflammation. We describe here the pathophysiology of an anti-inflammatory agent termed urinary trypsin inhibitor (uTi). It is an important anti-inflammatory substance that is present in urine, blood and all organs. We also describe the anti-inflammatory agent bikunin, a selective inhibitor of serine proteases. The latter are important in modulating inflammatory events and even shutting them down.