Pathology of the synovium.

  title={Pathology of the synovium.},
  author={John X. O'Connell},
  journal={American journal of clinical pathology},
  volume={114 5},
  • J. O'Connell
  • Published 1 November 2000
  • Medicine
  • American journal of clinical pathology
Synovium is specialized mesenchymal tissue that is essential for the appropriate function of the locomotor apparatus. It is the site for a series of pathologic processes that are characteristic, and in some cases specific, to this distinctive tissue. In this article, the normal microscopic anatomy of synovium is briefly reviewed. Synovial proliferative disorders, including pigmented villonodular synovitis, giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, hemosiderotic synovitis, and fatty infiltration of the… 

Synovial Disorders of the Knee

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Histomorphological study of synovial lesions

High incidence of chronic nonspecific synovitis may represent a smoldering infection where the causative agent is not demonstrable, however if there is strong clinical suspicion then it is worthwhile to do serological test for rheumatoid factor and synovial scoring.

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The differential diagnosis includes pigmented villonodular synovitis, lipoma arborescence, synovial hemangioma, chronic tubercular and rheumatoid arthritis, neuroarthropathy and crystal arthropathies.

Synovitis of the Knee

The use of thesynovitis score has proved to be useful in defining forms lacking the typical histological features, allowing them to be distinguished on the basis of the intensity and severity of the synovial inflammation.

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Tendon sheath fibroma of the medial canthus.

To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of FTS reported to arise at this site, and like most FTS, the lesion in this patient was successfully treated by complete surgical excision.


Selection of appropriate imaging modalities and solid knowledge-base of imaging anatomy and functional roles of various soft tissue structures are essential for radiologists to make accurate

Giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath.

  • J. CollenG. Mount R. Oglesby
  • Medicine
    Journal of clinical rheumatology : practical reports on rheumatic & musculoskeletal diseases
  • 2009
Giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath is a benign lesion of unclear etiology that has characteristics that are consistent with chronic inflammation and neoplasm and is thought to represent extra-articular extension of pigmented villonodular synovitis.

Arthroscopic Technique for the Treatment of Localized Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis of the Knee

A step-by-step arthroscopic technique applied to treat a 27-year-old patient who had been suffering from pain and episodes of locking for a year and whose left knee MRI revealed an intra-articular mass, resulting in the diagnosis of localized pigmented villonodular synovitis.

Factors for Recurrence in Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis of Large Joints

In cases of PVNS in large joints, the factors that increased the local recurrence rate were incomplete surgical removal, diffuse type lesion and the presence of bone erosion.



The pathogenesis of chronic haemophilic arthropathy.

  • H. SteinR. Duthie
  • Biology, Medicine
    The Journal of bone and joint surgery. British volume
  • 1981
It is suggested that haemophilic arthropathy is the result of a number of mechanisms affecting the synovial lining which becomes progressively fibrotic and the hyaline cartilage which disintegrates and is eventually lost.

Chondrosarcomas of the synovium

Several histologic features were found that were helpful to diagnose malignancy, including loss of the “clustering” growth pattern typical of synovial chondromatosis, myxoid change in the matrix, areas of necrosis, and spindling at the periphery of chondroid lobules.

Ultrastructure of human tendon sheath and synovium: implications for tumor histogenesis.

Comparison with cells of tumors that have been ascribed to synovium or tendon sheath do not reveal any close similarities that might support a histogenetic relationship, but the frequent occurrence of intermediate forms indicates that the two cells form part of a morphologic spectrum.

Giant cell tumor of tendon sheath and pigmented villonodular synovitis: an ultrastructural study.

Both the giant cell tumors and the pigmented synovitis are considered to be reactive and borderline proliferative lesions of the synovial cells.

Histopathological and ultrastructural studies of synovium in Milwaukee shoulder syndrome--a basic calcium phosphate crystal arthropathy.

Light and electron microscopic study of synovial specimens from four patients with the Milwaukee shoulder syndrome disclosed vascular congestion, villous and focal synovial lining cell hyperplasia,

Pigmented villonodular synovitis of synovial joints: clinical, pathologic, and radiologic features.

There is insufficient emphasis in the radiologic literature on the high incidence of bone lesions in joints affected by pigmented villonodular synovitis, resulting in an improper diagnosis of neoplasia or infection.

Proliferative synovitis in hemophilia: biochemical and morphologic observations.

The data establish the degradative potential of the synovitis found in hemophilia and support the concept that recurrent hemarthrosis without inflammation is sufficient in and of itself to produce proliferativesynovitis.

Giant-cell tumor of tendon sheath. Its histogenesis as studied in the electron microscope.

  • R. Eisenstein
  • Biology, Medicine
    The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume
  • 1968
The cytology of these lesions supports the current interpretation that they are hyperplastic lesions of synovial origin, and indicates that all the cells of the lesion are, or are derived from, cells present in normalsynovial membranes.

Pigmented villonodular synovitis (giant-cell tumor of the tendon sheath and synovial membrane). A review of eighty-one cases.

The centrifugal growth pattern and the distinct differences between the lesional tissue and the adjacent hyperplastic synovial tissue suggest that pigmented villonodular synovitis is a true neoplastic process.

Calcifying tendinitis: a new concept of its pathogenesis.

The pathogenetic mechanism of calcifying tendinitis should be reassessed as a unique disorder of the musculotendinous cuff as it is found to be a significant correlation between severe pain and histological signs of resorption.