Pathology of Pediatric Hydrocephalus

  title={Pathology of Pediatric Hydrocephalus},
  author={Gurjit Nagra and Marc R. Del Bigio},
  journal={Pediatric Hydrocephalus},
1 Citations

Relationships between Head Circumference Percentile, Lumbar Puncture Pressure, and Cerebrospinal Fluid Space in Young Children: Increased Cerebrospinal Space and Pressure May Result in Compensatory Enlargement of Head Circumference Only in the Infant Period

It is suggested that increased cerebrospinal space and pressure may result in compensatory enlargement of head circumference only in the infant period, and the SDHG thickness decreases with age during the infant and toddler phases.



Nonsurgical therapy for hydrocephalus: a comprehensive and critical review

Clinical trials of varied quality have not demonstrated lasting and convincing protective effects through manipulation of cerebrospinal fluid production, diuresis, blood clot fibrinolysis, or manipulation of fibrosis in the subarachnoid compartment; more experimental work is needed in these areas.

Neuropathology and structural changes in hydrocephalus.

The clinical syndrome of hydrocephalic brain dysfunction is thus due to subcortical disconnection, which is reversible by shunting, probably through restoration of cerebral blood flow and normalization of the extracellular environment.

The ependyma: A protective barrier between brain and cerebrospinal fluid

In the mature mammalian brain ependymal cells possess the structural and enzymatic characteristics necessary for scavenging and detoxifying a wide variety of substances in the CSF, thus forming a metabolic barrier at the brain-CSF interface.

Cell proliferation in human ganglionic eminence and suppression after prematurity-associated haemorrhage

Haemorrhage-associated suppression of cell proliferation in premature human infants could partially explain the reduced brain size and clinical effects in children who suffer germinal matrix haemorhage after premature birth.

Cellular Damage and Prevention in Childhood Hydrocephalus

The literature concerning brain damage due to hydrocephalus, especially in children and animal models, is reviewed. The following conclusions are reached:


It is demonstrated that the carbonic anhydrase IX moderates invasion in glycolytic glioma cells via acidification of the extracellular milieu and enhanced secretion of cathepsin B.


Chronic internal hydrocephalus is characterized by a progressive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles, causing their dilatation and a consequent cortical atrophy and, when possible, enlargement of the head.

Future Directions for Therapy of Childhood Hydrocephalus: A View from the Laboratory

A personal perspective on the study of experimental models of hydrocephalus is offered. Many animal models are available; each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Detailed study of more than one