Pathology and Host Immune Evasion During Human Leptospirosis: a Review

  title={Pathology and Host Immune Evasion During Human Leptospirosis: a Review},
  author={Voon Kin Chin and Rusliza Basir and Syafinaz Amin Nordin and Maha Abdullah and Zamberi Bin Sekawi},
  journal={International Microbiology},
Human leptospirosis is considered as one of the most widespread and potentially fatal zoonotic diseases that causes high mortality and morbidity in the endemic regions of tropical and subtropical countries. The infection can arise from direct or indirect exposure of human through contaminated environment that contains leptospires or animal reservoirs that carry leptospires. The clinical manifestations during human leptospirosis ranges from asymptomatic, mild infections to severe and life… Expand
Leptospira surface protein LigA plays a multifaceted role in modulating the host innate immune response
The results highlight the moonlighting function of LigA and demonstrates that a single domain of a surface protein is involved in evading a myriad of host innate immune defences, which might allow the persistence of Leptospira in different hosts for a long term without clearance. Expand
Prevalence of Malaria and Leptospirosis Co-Infection among Febrile Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Clinical symptoms of leptospirosis patients were non-specific and not distinguishable from symptoms of malaria patients, clinicians caring for febrile patients in an area where those two diseases are endemic should maintain a high index of suspicion for both diseases. Expand
Cytotoxicity of the 42 kDa SMase C sphingomyelinase secreted by Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona on Vero cells.
The cytotoxicity of a 42 kDa sphingomyelinase secreted by Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona strain Pomona upon infecting Vero cells is demonstrated. Expand
VANGUARD®crLyme: A next generation Lyme disease vaccine that prevents B. burgdorferi infection in dogs
The immunogenicity and efficacy of VANGUARD®crLyme (Zoetis), the most recent canine Lyme disease vaccine to be approved by the United States Department of Agriculture, are reported on. Expand
Bartonella henselae is a well-known causative organism for infective neuroretinitis, however, the other rare organisms such as Leptospira should be considered especially in tropical countries. Expand
Novel R-type Lectin Domain-Containing Cytotoxins Comprise a Family of Virulence-Modifying Proteins in Pathogenic Leptospira
It is shown that VM proteins are potent cytotoxins, sharing a distinct domain organization while exhibiting varied mechanisms of cellular toxicity, suggesting that anti-VM-protein antibody-based (anti-toxin) therapeutics could ameliorate severe complications of leptospirosis thereby improving prognosis. Expand


Leptospirosis in human: Biomarkers in host immune responses.
A profound understanding of the interlink between virulence factors and host immune responses during human leptospirosis is imperative to identify potential biomarkers for diagnostic and prognostic applications as well as designing novel immunotherapeutic strategies in future. Expand
Immune Evasion of Leptospira Species by Acquisition of Human Complement Regulator C4BP
It is found that pathogenic strains displayed reduced deposition of the late complement components C5 to C9 upon exposure to serum, and binding of C4BP contributes to leptospiral serum resistance against host complement. Expand
Leptospirosis in humans.
  • D. Haake, P. Levett
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Current topics in microbiology and immunology
  • 2015
Data emerging from prospective surveillance studies suggest that most human leptospiral infections in endemic areas are mild or asymptomatic, and patients progressing to multisystem organ failure have widespread hematogenous dissemination of pathogens. Expand
Leptospirosis: pathogenesis, immunity, and diagnosis
In the future, more studies into genetics, immune mechanisms that may be exploited to prevent leptospirosis, and pathogenesis of the disease are necessary, and the wealth of genetic information must effectively utilize to combat the disease. Expand
In vitro evidence for immune evasion activity by human plasmin associated to pathogenic Leptospira interrogans.
It is demonstrated that PLA-coated leptospires interfere with complement C3b and IgG depositions on the bacterial surface, probably through the degradation of these components, thus diminishing opsonization process, which might be an important aspect of theLeptospiral immune escape strategy and survival. Expand
Complement Evasion by Pathogenic Leptospira
These complement evasion mechanisms act together to favor Leptospira survival and multiplication in the host, and are fully explored. Expand
Leptospirosis: an emerging global public health problem
Comprehensive understanding of the eco- epidemiological and cultural characteristics of a community that faces the problem of leptospirosis is an essential prerequisite for evolving an effective and acceptable control measure. Expand
The role of Lsa23 to mediate the interaction of Leptospira interrogans with the terminal complement components pathway.
This is the first work reporting the binding of Leptospira to C8 and C9 terminal complement components, suggesting that the inhibition of this pathway is part of the strategy used by leptospires to evade the innate immunity. Expand
Neutrophil Extracellular Traps are Involved in the Innate Immune Response to Infection with Leptospira
The data suggest that LIC triggers NETs, and that the intravascular formation of these DNA traps appears to be critical not only to prevent early leptospiral dissemination but also to preclude further bacterial burden. Expand
Leptospiral Pathogenomics
Functional genomics approaches to apply the data generated by the Leptospira Genome Project towards deepening the authors' knowledge of virulence factors of Leptonospira using the emerging discipline of pathogenomics are described. Expand