Pathology: Whales, sonar and decompression sickness

@article{Piantadosi2004PathologyWS,
  title={Pathology: Whales, sonar and decompression sickness},
  author={Claude A. Piantadosi and Edward D. Thalmann},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2004},
  volume={428},
  pages={-}
}
Arising from: Jepson, P. D. et al. 425, 575–576 (2003); Jepson repliesWe do not yet know why whales occasionally strand after sonar has been deployed nearby, but such information is important for both naval undersea activities and the protection of marine mammals. Jepson et al. suggest that a peculiar gas-forming disease afflicting some stranded cetaceans could be a type of decompression sickness (DCS) resulting from exposure to mid-range sonar. However, neither decompression theory nor… 

Sonars, Gas Bubbles, and Cetacean Deaths

This interesting paper suggests that gas bubble formation, possibly in response to either rapid decompression (‘‘decompression sickness’’ or DCS equivalent?) or exposure of nitrogen-supersaturated tissues to sound waves2 was the likely cause of death.

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Decompression sickness (DCS), as clinically diagnosed by reversal of symptoms with recompression, has never been reported in aquatic breath-hold diving vertebrates despite the occurrence of tissue

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What is known about beaked whale anatomy and physiology is described and mechanisms that may have led to beaked whales mass strandings that were induced by anthropogenic sonar are discussed.

Sonar versus whales: noise may disrupt neural activity in deep-diving cetaceans.

  • A. TalpalarY. Grossman
  • Physics
    Undersea & hyperbaric medicine : journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
  • 2005
It is proposed that the effects of noise at frequency may be enhanced during deep diving due to a synergistic combination with the adaptive response of the central nervous system (CNS) at high pressure.

Evidence for the initiation of decompression sickness by exposure to intense underwater sound.

The results demonstrate induction of neurological damage by intense underwater sound during immersion, with a further deleterious effect when this was combined with decompression stress.

Discrimination between bycatch and other causes of cetacean and pinniped stranding.

Insight is provided into the different published parameters for PUE in bycatch for regions frequently confronted by stranded marine mammals with non-specific lesions, this could potentially aid in the investigation and quantification of marine fisheries interactions.

How Do Marine Mammals Manage and Usually Avoid Gas Emboli Formation and Gas Embolic Pathology? Critical Clues From Studies of Wild Dolphins

Decompression theory has been mainly based on studies on terrestrial mammals, and may not translate well to marine mammals. However, evidence that marine mammals experience gas bubbles during diving
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