Invasive Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 with Naturally Attenuated Flagellin Elicits Reduced Inflammation and Replicates within Macrophages
In East Africa, bacteremia is more common in hospitalized human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-positive than -negative patients. In 1991, blood cultures and clinical and laboratory data were obtained from 319 patients in Ivory Coast, where both HIV-1 and -2 infections occur. Forty-three bacterial, 10 mycobacterial, and 8 fungal pathogens were isolated from blood of 54 patients (17%). Pathogens isolated significantly (P < or = .05) more frequently from HIV-positive than -negative patients were nonmycobacterial bacteria, particularly Salmonella enteritidis; mycobacteria, particularly Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Mycobacterium bovis; and yeast or fungus. HIV-1 or -2 positivity was associated with a 3-fold increased risk for septicemia (P < .02). HIV-positive patients with fever or with lymphocyte counts < 1000 were more likely to be septicemic than those without these characteristics. Mortality increased significantly with HIV positivity (40% vs. 14%, P < .001) and, among HIV-positive patients, with having pathogens isolated from blood (63% vs. 33%, P < .001).