Pathogens, Pests, and Economics: Drivers of Honey Bee Colony Declines and Losses

  title={Pathogens, Pests, and Economics: Drivers of Honey Bee Colony Declines and Losses},
  author={Kristine M. Smith and Elizabeth H. Loh and Melinda K Rostal and Carlos Zambrana‐Torrelio and Luciana Mendiola and Peter Daszak},
The Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) is responsible for ecosystem services (pollination) worth US$215 billion annually worldwide and the number of managed colonies has increased 45% since 1961. However, in Europe and the U.S., two distinct phenomena; long-term declines in colony numbers and increasing annual colony losses, have led to significant interest in their causes and environmental implications. The most important drivers of a long-term decline in colony numbers appear to be… 

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