Pathogens, Pests, and Economics: Drivers of Honey Bee Colony Declines and Losses

  title={Pathogens, Pests, and Economics: Drivers of Honey Bee Colony Declines and Losses},
  author={K. Smith and E. H. Loh and M. Rostal and C. Zambrana-Torrelio and Luciana Mendiola and P. Daszak},
  • K. Smith, E. H. Loh, +3 authors P. Daszak
  • Published 2013
  • Biology, Medicine
  • EcoHealth
  • The Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) is responsible for ecosystem services (pollination) worth US$215 billion annually worldwide and the number of managed colonies has increased 45% since 1961. However, in Europe and the U.S., two distinct phenomena; long-term declines in colony numbers and increasing annual colony losses, have led to significant interest in their causes and environmental implications. The most important drivers of a long-term decline in colony numbers appear to be… CONTINUE READING
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