Pathogens, Nutritional Deficiency, and Climate Influences on a Declining Moose Population

@inproceedings{Murray2006PathogensND,
  title={Pathogens, Nutritional Deficiency, and Climate Influences on a Declining Moose Population},
  author={Dennis L Murray and Eric Cox and Warren B. Ballard and Heather A. Whitlaw and Mark S. Lenarz and Thomas W. Custer and Terri Barnett and Todd K. Fuller},
  year={2006}
}
Abstract Several potential proximate causes may be implicated in a recent (post-1984) decline in moose (Alces alces andersoni) numbers at their southern range periphery in northwest Minnesota, USA. These causes include deleterious effects of infectious pathogens, some of which are associated with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), negative effects of climate change, increased food competition with deer or moose, legal or illegal hunting, and increased predation by gray wolves (Canis… 
Effects of Winter Ticks and Internal Parasites on Moose Survival in Vermont, USA
Moose (Alces alces) have experienced considerable declines along the periphery of their range in the northeastern United States. In Vermont, the population declined 45% from 2010 to 2017 despite
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Climate change is expected to have both positive and negative impacts on northern ungulate populations. Moose (Alces alces) will likely benefit from an increase in the growing season length and
MOOSE AND DEER POPULATION TRENDS IN NORTHWESTERN ONTARIO: A CASE HISTORY
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It is argued that the meningeal worm likely played a major role in this moose decline, which declined markedly beginning in the late 1990s, and by 2012 were at very low levels district-wide while deer numbers remained high.
The demography and determinants of population growth in Utah moose (Alces alces shirasi)
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TLDR
It is surmised that moose in southern Ontario currently are not subject to the prevalent continental decline, likely owing to favourable site-specific climatic conditions.
Using movement ecology to investigate meningeal worm risk in moose, Alces alces
TLDR
Assessment of the relationship between meningeal worm infection and exposure to hypothesized factors of infection risk based on the space use of each moose by season and suggested management strategies that use a combination of deer and land management prescriptions designed to limit contact rates in susceptible populations.
Evaluating moose Alces alces population response to infestation level of winter ticks Dermacentor albipictus
TLDR
A shift in moose management strategy focused on lowering moose density is suggested, assuming continued influence of climate change on the host–parasite relationship and the influence of winter tick infestation is continued.
Reproduction in moose at their southern range limit
TLDR
Moose living at southern latitudes tended to have lower reproductive rates than those living in the core of moose range, implying that southern moose populations may be demographically more vulnerable than northern moosing populations.
ECOLOGY AND POPULATION DYNAMICS OF BLACK BEARS IN MINNESOTA
North temperate species on the southern edge of their distribution are especially at risk to climate induced changes. One such species is the moose (Alces alces), whose continental United States
Characteristics and dynamics of a regional moose Alces alces population in the northeastern United States
TLDR
The stability of the moose population in northern New Hampshire probably reflects the variation in annual recruitment and lower fecundity of yearling cows associated with heavy infestations and epizootics of winter tick, and should recover from tick epizotics that periodically inhibit population growth.
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