Pathogenicity islands of virulent bacteria: structure, function and impact on microbial evolution

@article{Hacker1997PathogenicityIO,
  title={Pathogenicity islands of virulent bacteria: structure, function and impact on microbial evolution},
  author={J{\"o}rg H Hacker and Gabriele Blum-Oehler and Inge Mühldorfer and Helmut Tschäpe},
  journal={Molecular Microbiology},
  year={1997},
  volume={23}
}
Virulence genes of pathogenic bacteria, which code for toxins, adhesins, invasins or other virulence factors, may be located on transmissible genetic elements such as transposons, plasmids or bacteriophages. In addition, such genes may be part of particular regions on the bacterial chromosome, termed‘pathogenicity islands’(Pais). Pathogenicity islands are found in Gram‐negative as well as in Gram‐positive bacteria. They are present in the genome of pathogenic strains of a given species but… 
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TLDR
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TLDR
Genomic island (GEIs) represent formerly transferred or still mobile genetic entities that have evolved from horizontal gene transfer and DNA recombination events and will contribute to an ongoing evolution of bacterial variants, including bacterial pathogens.
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TLDR
The contribution of intergenic inheritance to the adaptation and evolution of E. coli and other bacteria is presented and approaches to identify unique sequence islands (USIs), some of which might confer pathogenicity, are presented.
On the Role of Genomic Islands in Bacterial Pathogenicity and Antimicrobial Resistance
TLDR
Genomic signature variation is utilized for detection of GEIs in host chromosome and Target DNAs are edited by Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) causing bacterial evolution and pathogenicity.
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