BACKGROUND to investigate the recovery of pathogenic bacteria, fungi and parasites isolated from ear, nose and throat specimens in large population group in a secondary health care institution. METHODS retrospective study results of all microbiologic cultures submitted from the outpatient clinic of a large, secondary health care practice, for the time period January 2001 until December 2005 were identified from a microbiologic specimen database. The results from these cultures were entered into a database, tabulating site from which the culture was taken, from whom the material was sent and the type of organism recovered. RESULTS from a total of 17,362 specimens, 88% results in the normal bacterial flora. Remaining 12% were pathological bacterial, fungal and parasite flora: 1218 from ear specimens, 376 from nose and. 474 from throat specimens. In 40% of cases material was sent by primary health care provider, in 52% of cases material was taken during systematic screening and only in about 8% the material was sent from an ENT specialist. the most frequent pathogens isolated from ear specimens are Staphylococcus saprophiticus and aureus, 24.6 and 17.7%, followed by Pseudomonas auriginosa in 13.2%; from nose specimens the most often isolated pathogenic bacteria is Staphylococcus aureus in 52.4%, Streptococcus spp. in 16% and Branhamella in 13% of nose specimens. From the throat specimens Staphylococcus aureus in 48.7%, Enterococcus in 13.3%, Streptococcus beta-haemolyticus gr. A in 11.8% and Streptococcus beta-haemolyticus gr. B in 8.4% of cases. CONCLUSIONS Staphylococcus spp, Pseudomonas, Escherichia and Streptococcus spp. are leading pathogens from ear, nose and throat specimens, so further investigation on appropriate antibiotics use and bacterial resistance will be welcome.