Pathogenesis of Lyme neuroborreliosis: Borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteins induce both proliferation and apoptosis in rhesus monkey astrocytes

@article{Ramesh2003PathogenesisOL,
  title={Pathogenesis of Lyme neuroborreliosis: Borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteins induce both proliferation and apoptosis in rhesus monkey astrocytes},
  author={Geeta Ramesh and Alida L. Alvarez and Edgar Donald Roberts and Vida A Dennis and Barbara L. Lasater and Xavier Alvarez and Mario T. Philipp},
  journal={European Journal of Immunology},
  year={2003},
  volume={33}
}
Brain invasion by Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, results in an inflammatory and neurodegenerative disorder called neuroborreliosis. In humans, neuroborreliosis has been correlated with enhanced concentration of glial fibrillary acidic protein in the cerebrospinal fluid, a sign of astrogliosis. Rhesus monkeys infected by us with B. burgdorferi showed evidence of astrogliosis, namely astrocyte proliferation and apoptosis. We formulated the hypothesis that astrogliosis could be… 

Interaction of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi with brain parenchyma elicits inflammatory mediators from glial cells as well as glial and neuronal apoptosis.

TLDR
Results provide proof of concept for the hypothesis that B. burgdorferi induces the production of inflammatory mediators in the central nervous system with concomitant neuronal and/or glial apoptosis, accompanied by glial and neuronal apoptosis.

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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
The data provide proof of the concept that astrocyte and microglial TLR1, -2, and -5 are involved in the in vivo response of primate glial cells to B. burgdorferi, and it is hypothesized that these TLR-mediated responses could be a signif-icant factor in the pathogenesis of Lyme neuroborreliosis.

Microglia Are Mediators of Borrelia burgdorferi–Induced Apoptosis in SH-SY5Y Neuronal Cells

TLDR
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Brucella abortus induces the secretion of proinflammatory mediators from glial cells leading to astrocyte apoptosis.

TLDR
In vivo and in vitro evidence that B. abortus and its lipoproteins activate the innate immunity of the CNS, eliciting an inflammatory response that leads to astrogliosis, a characteristic feature of neurobrucellosis is presented.

Murine glia express the immunosuppressive cytokine, interleukin‐10, following exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi or Neisseria meningitidis

TLDR
The ability of the immunosuppressive cytokine, interleukin‐10 (IL‐10), to inhibit inflammatory immune responses of primary microglia and astrocytes to B. burgdorferi and N. meningitidis is demonstrated.
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