Pathogenesis, detection and treatment of Achilles tendon xanthomas

@article{Tsouli2005PathogenesisDA,
  title={Pathogenesis, detection and treatment of Achilles tendon xanthomas},
  author={Sofia Tsouli and Dimitris-Nikiforos Kiortsis and Maria I. Argyropoulou and Dimitri P. Mikhailidis and M. Elisaf},
  journal={European Journal of Clinical Investigation},
  year={2005},
  volume={35}
}
Tendon xanthomatosis often accompanies familial hypercholesterolaemia, but it can also occur in other pathologic states. Achilles tendons are the most common sites of tendon xanthomas. Low‐density lipoprotein (LDL) derived from the circulation accumulates into tendons. The next steps leading to the formation of Achilles tendon xanthomas (ATX) are the transformation of LDL into oxidized LDL (oxLDL) and the active uptake of oxLDL by macrophages within the tendons. Although physical examination… 

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TLDR
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TLDR
ATT might serve as a valuable auxiliary diagnostic index for hypercholesterolemia and used for the assessment and management of cardiovascular disease.

Xanthomas: clinical and pathophysiological relations.

TLDR
Thorough familiarity with the clinical presentation of xanthomas helps in the diagnosis and follow-up of different forms of dyslipidemia, and xanthelasma palpebrarum, the most prevalent form of xantha, is connected with increased risk of atherothrombotic disease independently of conventional cardiovascular risk factors.

Can Achilles tendon xanthoma be distinguished from Achilles tendinopathy using Dixon method MRI? A cross-sectional exploratory study

TLDR
MRI-derived measures of Achilles tendon fat content may be able to distinguish xanthomas from control and tendinopathic tissue, and the Dixon method MRI warrants further evaluation in an adequately powered study to develop and test clinically relevant diagnostic thresholds.

A Rare Case of Bilateral Achilles Tendon Xanthomas in a Teenager, Successfully Treated with Tendon Sparing Technique

TLDR
Subtotal resection of Achilles tendon xanthoma (tendon sparingly) offers cosmetically and functionally acceptable outcomes, with faster recovery and no recurrences over 2 years.

Achilles Tendon Ultrasonography for Diagnosis of Familial Hypercholesterolemia Among Japanese Subjects.

BACKGROUND Difficulty in detecting and measuring Achilles tendon (AT) xanthomas may be responsible for underdiagnosis of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). We aimed to determine a cutoff value for

Achilles Tendon Softness and Thickness in Patients With Hypercholesterolemia

TLDR
The thickness and softness of the Achilles tendon are positively correlated with the serum total cholesterol level, and men have a higher risk of developing Achilles tendon thickening than women.
...

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TLDR
The present case illustrates the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) to detect xanthomas in the Achilles tendons (XAT) and their regression in response to hypolipidemic drug treatment in a heterozygous FH patient.

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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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    The American journal of pathology
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TLDR
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...