Pathogenesis, detection and treatment of Achilles tendon xanthomas

  title={Pathogenesis, detection and treatment of Achilles tendon xanthomas},
  author={Sofia Tsouli and Dimitris-Nikiforos Kiortsis and Maria I. Argyropoulou and Dimitri P. Mikhailidis and M. Elisaf},
  journal={European Journal of Clinical Investigation},
Tendon xanthomatosis often accompanies familial hypercholesterolaemia, but it can also occur in other pathologic states. Achilles tendons are the most common sites of tendon xanthomas. Low‐density lipoprotein (LDL) derived from the circulation accumulates into tendons. The next steps leading to the formation of Achilles tendon xanthomas (ATX) are the transformation of LDL into oxidized LDL (oxLDL) and the active uptake of oxLDL by macrophages within the tendons. Although physical examination… 

An exceptional case of xanthomatous infiltration of the musculoskeletal and integumentary systems

The radiographic and MR imaging descriptions of xanthomas in this report further add to the existing literature by helping to identify imaging characteristics of this multifocal systemic disease.

Association of Achilles tendon thickness and LDL-cholesterol levels in patients with hypercholesterolemia

ATT might serve as a valuable auxiliary diagnostic index for hypercholesterolemia and used for the assessment and management of cardiovascular disease.

Xanthomas: clinical and pathophysiological relations.

Thorough familiarity with the clinical presentation of xanthomas helps in the diagnosis and follow-up of different forms of dyslipidemia, and xanthelasma palpebrarum, the most prevalent form of xantha, is connected with increased risk of atherothrombotic disease independently of conventional cardiovascular risk factors.

Can Achilles tendon xanthoma be distinguished from Achilles tendinopathy using Dixon method MRI? A cross-sectional exploratory study

MRI-derived measures of Achilles tendon fat content may be able to distinguish xanthomas from control and tendinopathic tissue, and the Dixon method MRI warrants further evaluation in an adequately powered study to develop and test clinically relevant diagnostic thresholds.

A Rare Case of Bilateral Achilles Tendon Xanthomas in a Teenager, Successfully Treated with Tendon Sparing Technique

Subtotal resection of Achilles tendon xanthoma (tendon sparingly) offers cosmetically and functionally acceptable outcomes, with faster recovery and no recurrences over 2 years.

Achilles Tendon Ultrasonography for Diagnosis of Familial Hypercholesterolemia Among Japanese Subjects.

BACKGROUND Difficulty in detecting and measuring Achilles tendon (AT) xanthomas may be responsible for underdiagnosis of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). We aimed to determine a cutoff value for

Achilles Tendon Softness and Thickness in Patients With Hypercholesterolemia

The thickness and softness of the Achilles tendon are positively correlated with the serum total cholesterol level, and men have a higher risk of developing Achilles tendon thickening than women.



Regression of Achilles Tendon Xanthomas Evaluated by CT Scan After Hypolipidemic Treatment with Simvastatin

The present case illustrates the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) to detect xanthomas in the Achilles tendons (XAT) and their regression in response to hypolipidemic drug treatment in a heterozygous FH patient.

Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: detection of xanthomas in the Achilles tendon with US.

The improved sonographic visualization of tendon xanthomas in FH, rather than the secondary tendon enlargement caused by them, suggests a new role for ultrasound in the early diagnosis and follow-up of these cases.

Ultrasonography of the Achilles tendon in hypercholesterolemia.

US should be used to prove or rule out Achilles tendon abnormalities in patients with FH for prophylaxis and treatment of tendinitis and tendon rupture, in the authors' opinion.

Sonography in the detection of achilles tendon xanthomata in children with familial hypercholesterolaemia

It is concluded that ultrasound examination sensitively detects cholesterol accumulation in the achilles tendon of FH children before tendon xanthomata are clinically evident.

Sonography of Achilles tendon xanthomas in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

Sonography is significantly more sensitive than physical examination for the detection of Achilles tendon xanthomas in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia and normal-sized Achilles tendons.

Magnetic resonance imaging of Achilles tendon xanthomas in familial hypercholesterolemia

The value of MRI in the demonstration of Achilles tendon xanthomas is limited when using conventional T1 and T2 spin echo sequences, as an abnormally increased signal intensity within the xanthoma on MRI was found in only a minority of patients.

Lipid deposition in human tendon xanthoma.

  • H. Kruth
  • Biology, Medicine
    The American journal of pathology
  • 1985
Deposition of unesterified cholesterol in human atherosclerotic lesions and tendon xanthomas is an interesting but as yet unexplained phenomenon.