Sepsis is a severe and life-threatening disease that requires a rapid and reliable diagnosis. The detection of microorganisms in blood culture and the results of in vitro anti-microbial susceptibility testing are prerequisites for a directed and cost-effective antimicrobial therapy. Microbiological results are difficult to interpret if contamination of the blood culture with colonizing or environmental germs cannot be ruled out. The source of contamination is predominantly inappropriate withdrawal of blood. Occasionally, contamination of blood cultures occurs in the laboratory. A potentially relevant blood culture result is already indicated by the isolated pathogen itself. In addition, a short time between the collection of blood and the isolation of the microorganism as well as the detection of the same pathogen in several blood cultures even more suggest a clinically relevant result.