Pathogen Spillover in Disease Epidemics

@article{Power2004PathogenSI,
  title={Pathogen Spillover in Disease Epidemics},
  author={Alison G Power and Charles E. Mitchell},
  journal={The American Naturalist},
  year={2004},
  volume={164},
  pages={S79 - S89}
}
In field experiments manipulating generalist pathogens and host community composition, the presence of a highly susceptible reservoir species drove disease dynamics in multiple nonreservoir species, sometimes decreasing their abundance through apparent competition. [...] Key Method We then present results from two field experiments utilizing an experimentally tractable model system of annual wild grasses and a generalist virus, the barley yellow dwarf virus. In these experiments, the presence of a highly…Expand
The consequences of reservoir host eradication on disease epidemiology in animal communities
TLDR
Sphaerothecum destruens, a generalist fungal-like fish pathogen with bi-modal transmission, was used to characterise the biological drivers responsible for disease emergence in temperate fish communities and reinforced the importance of rapid detection and eradication of non-native species. Expand
Ecosystem dynamics, biological diversity and emerging infectious diseases
TLDR
This article focuses on zoonotic infections with vector-borne transmission and dissect the contrasting effects that a multiplicity of host reservoirs and vectors can have on their disease dynamics, and proposes some research avenues that take into account the multi-host species reality in the transmission of the most important emerging infectious diseases. Expand
Direct and indirect effects of forest microclimate on pathogen spillover.
TLDR
Investigating the relative influence of biotic and abiotic factors on pathogen spillover for the emerging infectious forest disease sudden oak death (SOD) found that biotic factors of pathogen load and tree diversity had relatively stronger effects on pathogenic spillover compared to abiotic microclimate factors. Expand
Local adaptation at higher trophic levels: contrasting hyperparasite–pathogen infection dynamics in the field and laboratory
TLDR
This work tests whether the association between a hyperparasitic fungus and a single powdery mildew host, Ampelomyces, varies across combinations of pathogen–hyperparasite strains, and whether this drives hyperParasite incidence in nature. Expand
Cross-species pathogen spillover across ecosystem boundaries: mechanisms and theory
TLDR
This review identifies and explores potential ecological mechanisms affecting spillover of pathogens (and parasites in general) at ecosystem boundaries and borrows the concept of ‘permeability’ from animal movement ecology as a measure of the likelihood that hosts and parasites are present in an ecosystem boundary region. Expand
Spatiotemporal Model of Barley and Cereal Yellow Dwarf Virus Transmission Dynamics with Seasonality and Plant Competition
TLDR
Model the transmission of a generalist pathogen within a patch framework that incorporates the movement of vectors between discrete host patches to investigate the effects of local host community composition and vector movement rates on disease dynamics and suggests that connectivity can interact with arrival time and host infection tolerance to determine the success or failure of establishment for newly arriving species. Expand
Non-random biodiversity loss underlies predictable increases in viral disease prevalence
TLDR
Community disassembly was non-random: ubiquitous hosts dominating species-poor assemblages were among the most competent for vector production and virus transmission, which suggests that non- random biodiversity loss led to increased virus prevalence. Expand
Phylogenetic structure and host abundance drive disease pressure in communities
TLDR
It is shown that the phylogenetic and ecological structure of the surrounding community can be important predictors of disease pressure, and the amount of tissue lost to disease increased with the relative abundance of a species across a grassland plant community, and that disease pressure was stronger on species with many close relatives. Expand
Richness and Composition of Niche-Assembled Viral Pathogen Communities
TLDR
Results from a regionally-replicated experiment investigating the community of barley and cereal yellow dwarf viruses in over 5000 experimentally planted individuals of six grass species along a 700 km latitudinal gradient along the Pacific coast of North America in response to experimentally manipulated nitrogen and phosphorus supplies reveal the importance of niche differentiation in structuring virus assemblages. Expand
Consequences of Pathogen Spillover for Cheatgrass-Invaded Grasslands: Coexistence, Competitive Exclusion, or Priority Effects
  • E. Mordecai
  • Biology, Medicine
  • The American Naturalist
  • 2013
TLDR
The model demonstrates that the consequences of pathogen spillover depend on host differences in species-specific transmission and disease tolerance, and can lead to coexistence, native grass exclusion, or priority effects, in which either species can exclude the other when initially more dominant. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 81 REFERENCES
The ecology of infectious disease: Effects of host diversity and community composition on Lyme disease risk
TLDR
This study suggests that the preservation of vertebrate biodiversity and community composition can reduce the incidence of Lyme disease, and identifies important “dilution hosts” (e.g., squirrels), characterized by high tick burdens, low reservoir competence, and high population density, as well as “rescue hosts’’, which are capable of maintaining high disease risk when mouse density is low. Expand
Epidemiology in mixed host populations.
TLDR
Leonard's classic model of the effects of host genotype diversity on disease and its predictions of disease level based on the proportion of susceptible host tissue are discussed. Expand
BIODIVERSITY AND THE DILUTION EFFECT IN DISEASE ECOLOGY
TLDR
A conceptual model of the “dilution effect” of the transmission of vector-borne zoonotic diseases is explored, whereby the presence of vertebrate hosts with a low capacity to infect feeding vectors dilute the effect of highly competent reservoirs, thus reducing disease risk. Expand
Parasite establishment in host communities
TLDR
A graphical isocline framework for studying disease establishment in systems with two host species, based on treating host species as resources is presented, providing a natural generalization to multi-host systems of two related concepts in disease ecology – the basic reproductive rate of a parasite, and threshold host density. Expand
Effects of disease in wild plant populations and the evolution of pathogen aggressiveness
TLDR
Trends within this group support Clay's New Function Hypothesis that pathogens can reduce their aggressiveness by acquiring new functions which increase plant fitness, and not by the amelioration of the original disease symptoms. Expand
Biodiversity and disease risk : The case of Lyme disease
TLDR
The reservoir competence of hosts within vertebrate communities and the degree of specialization by ticks on par- ticular hosts will strongly influence the relationship between species diversity and the risk of exposure to the many vector-borne diseases that plague humans. Expand
Host Density as a Factor in Plant Disease Ecology
TLDR
Few attempts have been made to isolate and quantify host density as a factor in disease even though many pathologists accept the axiom that growing plants in dense stands contributes to the development of severe epidemics. Expand
The interaction between plant competition and disease
TLDR
It is concluded that the presence of pathogens may have either large or minimal effects on population dynamics depending on many factors including the density-dependent compensatory ability of healthy plants and spatial patterns of infection. Expand
Diseases of humans and their domestic mammals: pathogen characteristics, host range and the risk of emergence.
TLDR
A database of disease-causing pathogens of humans and domestic mammals was constructed and it was found that helminths and fungi were relatively unlikely to emerge whereas viruses, particularly RNA viruses, were highly likely to emerge. Expand
Interactions of Intraspecific, Interspecific, and Apparent Competition with Host‐Pathogen Population Dynamics
TLDR
Results indicate that competition and parasitism interacted to produce the observed mortality patterns, and that ignoring mortality due to the virus would produce apparent interspecific competition. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...