Passive smoking, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and childhood infections

@article{Dybing1999PassiveSS,
  title={Passive smoking, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and childhood infections},
  author={Erik Dybing and Tore Sanner},
  journal={Human and Experimental Toxicology},
  year={1999},
  volume={18},
  pages={202 - 205}
}
1 A number of cohort and case-control studies have shown clear, dose-related associations between maternal smoking and infant death. The strongest relationships were found when the mother smoked during pregnancy as well as postnatally. Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risk for SIDS in most studies, whereas it appears that maternal smoking only postnatally also leads to an increase in risk. In addition, smoking only by the father appears to increase the risk for SIDS, but this is… 
EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE ON THE RESPIRATORY HEALTH OF CHILDREN
TLDR
This paper reviews of several articles between year 1992- 2009 obtained from the internet; Pubmed and Medline and discusses primarily on impact of ETS on during the fetal period and infancy and childhood.
Effects of Environmental Tobacco Smoke during Early Life Stages
TLDR
This chapter addresses conditions of early life ETS exposure and the effects of this exposure in the development of disease later in life.
The exposure of nonsmoking and smoking mothers to environmental tobacco smoke during different gestational phases and fetal growth.
TLDR
ETS exposure reduced the BW of infants of nonsmoking mothers and contributed to additional BW reduction in infants of AS mothers, and ETS exposure increased the risk of LBW but not that of IUGR in babies of nonssoking mothers.
Parental smoking, socioeconomic factors, and risk of invasive meningococcal disease in children: a population based case-control study
TLDR
The risk of invasive meningitis in children is strongly influenced by parental smoking and unfavourable socioeconomic circumstances, and these associations were reduced or eliminated in multivariate models.
Second hand smoke exposure and the risk of invasive meningococcal disease in children: systematic review and meta-analysis
TLDR
SHS exposure, and particularly passive foetal exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy, significantly increases the risk of childhood invasive meningococcal disease.
Genetic influences on smoking cessation and relapse in pregnant women
  • E. Triche, N. Hossain, M. Paidas
  • Medicine
    Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology : the journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  • 2008
TLDR
Insight is provided into the genetic influences on smoking behaviour in pregnant women and the roles of genes in the neurotransmitter pathways are highlighted, and the need for further research in this area is emphasised.
Smoking status in parents of children hospitalized with a diagnosis of respiratory system disorders.
TLDR
It was found that the hospitalization rates were more than two times higher in children diagnosed with pneumonia and bronchitis and three timesHigher in children hospitalized for asthma whose parents smoke at home compared to those whose parents are non-smokers.
Risk Factors for Sudden Infant Death in North Carolina
TLDR
Increased SIDS risk was significantly and independently associated with male infant sex, Non-Hispanic Black maternal race/ethnicity, young maternal age, low prenatal care, gestational age <39 weeks, birthweight <2500 g, low maternal education, and maternal tobacco use.
Association Between Passive Smoking and Infection With Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Children
OBJECTIVE. Tuberculosis and smoking are both significant public health problems. The association between passive smoking and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is not well documented. The objective
Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and children health.
TLDR
It is the opinion that among all biomarkers, the measurements of blood, saliva or urinary cotinine and hair nicotine are, as for today, the most specific and sensitive methods for an objective assessment of ETS exposure in children.
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References

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A case-control study of smoking and sudden infant death syndrome in the Scandinavian countries, 1992 to 1995
TLDR
Stopping smoking or smoking less may be beneficial in reducing the risk of SIDS, and the effect was mainly mediated through maternal smoking in pregnancy during pregnancy.
Interactions between maternal smoking and other prenatal risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
TLDR
Heavy smoking potentiates other prenatal risk factors for SIDS suggesting an increased susceptibility towards the adverse effects of tobacco smoke in utero in infants born to non‐smoking mothers.
Maternal smoking during pregnancy and postnatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke as predisposition factors to acute respiratory infections.
TLDR
Evidence is found that children exposed to ETS in their homes were more susceptible to acute respiratory tract illnesses than unexposed children, and a dose-response relationship between degree of exposure supports a causal explanation for the association observed.
Infant admissions to hospital and maternal smoking.
TLDR
The hypothesis that atmospheric pollution with tobacco smoke endangers the health of non-smokers is supported by the findings of a prospective study of 10,672 infants whose mothers' smoking habits were known.
Maternal smoking during pregnancy and lower respiratory tract illness in early life.
TLDR
It is suggested that maternal smoking influences the incidence of respiratory illnesses in children mainly through a congenital effect, and only to a lesser extent through passive exposure after birth.
The effect of passive smoking and tobacco exposure through breast milk on sudden infant death syndrome.
TLDR
Passive smoking in the same room as the infant increases the risk for SIDS and physicians should educate new and prospective parents about the risk of tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy and the first year of the infant's life.
Breastfeeding, maternal smoking and lower respiratory tract infections.
TLDR
A protective effect of long-term breastfeeding on the risk of lower respiratory tract infection during the first year of life is indicated, and the results suggest that the protective effect is strongest in children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke.
Bed sharing, smoking, and alcohol in the sudden infant death syndrome. New Zealand Cot Death Study Group.
TLDR
The interaction between maternal smoking and bed sharing suggests that a mechanism involving passive smoking, rather than the previously proposed mechanisms of overlaying and hyperthermia, increases the risk of sudden infant death from bed sharing.
Smoking and the sudden infant death syndrome: results from 1993-5 case-control study for confidential inquiry into stillbirths and deaths in infancy
TLDR
This study confirms the increased risk of the sudden infant death syndrome associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy and shows evidence that household exposure to tobacco smoke has an independent additive effect and parental drug misuse has an additional small but significant effect.
Case-control study of sudden infant death syndrome in Scotland, 1992-5
TLDR
In this study sleeping prone and, to a lesser extent, sleeping on the side increased the risk of the syndrome, so babies should be put down to sleep only on their back and bed sharing with an infant should be discouraged if the mother smokes.
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