Long-term large-scale sensing in the forest: recent advances and future directions of GreenOrbs
Network diagnosis, an essential research topic for traditional networking systems, has not received much attention for wireless sensor networks. Existing sensor debugging tools like sympathy or EmStar rely heavily on an add-in protocol that generates and reports a large amount of status information from individual sen-sor nodes, introducing network overhead to a resource constrained and usually traffic sensitive sensor network. We report in this study our initial attempt at providing a light-weight network diag-nosis mechanism for sensor networks. We propose PAD, a prob-abilistic diagnosis approach for inferring the root causes of ab-normal phenomena. PAD employs a packet marking algorithm for efficiently constructing and dynamically maintaining the inference model. Our approach does not incur additional traffic overhead for collecting desired information. Instead, we introduce a prob-abilistic inference model which encodes internal dependencies among different network elements, for online diagnosis of an operational sensor network system. Such a model is capable of additively reasoning root causes based on passively observed symptoms. We implement the PAD design in our sea monitoring sensor network test-bed and validate its effectiveness. We further evaluate the efficiency and scalability of this design through ex-tensive trace-driven simulations.
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