Passerine Birds

@article{Marshall2020PasserineB,
  title={Passerine Birds},
  author={Kemba L Marshall and Jennifer Jill Heatley},
  journal={Exotic Animal Laboratory Diagnosis},
  year={2020}
}
Testosterone increases singing and aggression but not male-typical sexual partner preference in early estrogen treated female zebra finches. Sexual differentiation of brain and behavior in the zebra finch: Critical periods for effects of early estrogen treatment. A zebra finch gynandromorph with masculine song system and lateralized expression of sex chromosome genes. (2000). Variation in the volume of zebra finch song control nuclei is heritable: Developmental and evolutionary implications… 

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The results show that early exposure has an equally strong influence on males' and females' song preferences despite the sexual asymmetry in song production learning, and suggests that the trajectory for song recognition learning is independent of the one forsong production learning.

Lateralization and effects of adult androgen in a sexually dimorphic neuromuscular system controlling song in zebra finches

Female‐biased sexual dimorphisms and right side dominance in both nXIIts and the syrinx may facilitate singing behavior, and other factors must be important in mediating the sex differences in both that structure and the volume of n XIIts.

Antiandrogen blocks estrogen-induced masculinization of the song system in female zebra finches.

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Sexual Differentiation of the Zebra Finch Song System Parallels Genetic, Not Gonadal, Sex

The results suggest that sexual differentiation of the zebra finch song system is not regulated by embryonic aromatase activity or by gonadal secretions and instead involves events that need not be mediated by steroid hormones.

Neither testicular androgens nor embryonic aromatase activity alters morphology of the neural song system in zebra finches.

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Functional testicular tissue does not masculinize development of the zebra finch song system.

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The results suggest that masculinization of the song system is not determined solely by testicular androgens or their estrogenic metabolites.

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Plasma sex steroids and tissue aromatization in hatchling zebra finches: implications for the sexual differentiation of singing behavior.

The puzzle remains why the song system is not masculinized in females, who possess high levels of aromatizable androgens and telencephalic aromatase, as in nonpasserine birds.

Behavioral discrimination of sexually dimorphic calls by male zebra finches requires an intact vocal motor pathway.

Apparently, in the absence of RA, the remaining intact structures receive different call information than RA normally does, and/or process it differently, which suggests that the vocal motor nucleus RA could play a role in the transformation of a signal encoding the salience of stimulus parameters into a control signal that modulates the probability and strength of responding.

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To the authors' knowledge, this is the first demonstration that localized brain implants of estrogen cause morphological masculinization in any species.
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