# Partitioning diversity into independent alpha and beta components.

@article{Jost2007PartitioningDI, title={Partitioning diversity into independent alpha and beta components.}, author={Lou Jost}, journal={Ecology}, year={2007}, volume={88 10}, pages={ 2427-39 } }

Existing general definitions of beta diversity often produce a beta with a hidden dependence on alpha. Such a beta cannot be used to compare regions that differ in alpha diversity. To avoid misinterpretation, existing definitions of alpha and beta must be replaced by a definition that partitions diversity into independent alpha and beta components. Such a unique definition is derived here. When these new alpha and beta components are transformed into their numbers equivalents (effective numbers…

## 1,823 Citations

### Multiplicative partition of true diversity yields independent alpha and beta components; additive partition does not.

- Environmental ScienceEcology
- 2010

The need for a measure of beta diversity independent of alpha diversity was stressed long time ago (Wilson and Shmida 1984), in order to ensure a ‘‘useful application of a measure [of beta diversity]…

### Diversity partitioning without statistical independence of alpha and beta.

- Computer ScienceEcology
- 2010

This work used a data simulation approach to show that alpha and beta diversity are not statistically independent in either additive or multiplicative partitioning, but the extent of the dependence is not so great that it cannot be overcome by using appropriate statistical techniques to control it.

### A diversity of beta diversities: straightening up a concept gone awry. Part 1. Defining beta diversity as a function of alpha and gamma diversity

- Environmental Science
- 2010

The present two-part review aims to put the different phenomena that have been called beta diversity into a common conceptual framework, and to explain what each of them measures.

### The generalized replication principle and the partitioning of functional diversity into independent alpha and beta components

- Psychology
- 2018

The aims of this paper are to review approaches for measuring functional diversity in units of equivalent numbers without explicit reference to replication principle, to compare the two proposed replication principle and to point out some important differences in the behavior of diversity families derived from the two principles.

### The generalized replication principle and the partitioning of functional diversity into independent alpha and beta components

- Psychology
- 2017

The replication principle was first proposed by Hill (1973, Ecology 54: 247–432) as an advantageous property of his family of diversity indices. Later Jost (2007, Ecology 88: 2427–2439) discovered…

### Bridging the variance and diversity decomposition approaches to beta diversity via similarity and differentiation measures

- Environmental Science
- 2016

A bridge is established by extending and modifying each approach so that both lead to the same classes of similarity/differentiation measures, which range in the interval [0, 1] and which can be compared across multiple sets of communities.

### Proposing a resolution to debates on diversity partitioning.

- Environmental ScienceEcology
- 2012

It is shown that the transformed multiplicative beta and additive beta both lead to the same classes of measures, which are always in a range of [0, 1] and thus can be used to compare relative similarity or differentiation among communities across multiple regions.

### Beta diversity as the variance of community data: dissimilarity coefficients and partitioning.

- Environmental ScienceEcology letters
- 2013

The approach links the concept of beta diversity with the analysis of community data by commonly used methods like ordination and anova, and addressed the question of which index to use by coding 16 indices using 14 properties that are necessary for beta assessment, comparability among data sets, sampling issues and ordination.

### Computing parametric beta diversity with unequal plot weights: a solution based on resampling methods

- Computer ScienceTheoretical Ecology
- 2008

A parametric measure of beta diversity that is based on the combination of Shannon’s entropy with Hurlbert's ‘expected species diversity’ is proposed, allowing at the same time a multiplicative partition of diversity into independent alpha and beta components for unequally weighted plots.

### Comparing two classes of alpha diversities and their corresponding beta and (dis)similarity measures, with an application to the Formosan sika deer Cervus nippon taiouanus reintroduction programme

- BiologyMethods in Ecology and Evolution
- 2019

The analysis to phylogenetic diversity partitioning is generally parallel and applies various species/taxonomic and phylogenetic dissimilarity measures to Taiwan’s plant data; the results provide insights into the assessment of a reintroduction programme of Formosan sika deer into a forest area.

## References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 31 REFERENCES

### The additive partitioning of species diversity: recent revival of an old idea

- Environmental Science
- 2002

Ecologists have traditionally viewed the total species diversity within a set of communities as the product of the average diversity within a community (alpha) and the diversity among the communities…

### Entropy and diversity

- Computer Science
- 2006

The standard similarity measure based on untransformed indices is shown to give misleading results, but transforming the indices or entropies to effective numbers of species produces a stable, easily interpreted, sensitive general similarity measure.

### Statistics and partitioning of species diversity, and similarity among multiple communities

- Environmental Science
- 1996

This work partitioned Simpson diversity into positive, additive components within and among communities, corresponding to α- and β-diversity, so that the total diversity in a pooled set of communities exceeds the average diversity within communities.

### A unified mathematical framework for the measurement of richness and evenness within and among multiple communities

- Environmental Science
- 2004

It is shown here that Hurlbert's probability of interspecific encounter (Δ 1), a commonly used sample-size independent measure of evenness, equals the slope of the steepest part of the rising limb of a rarefaction curve, which means that raref action curves provide information on both aspects of diversity.

### Beta diversity on geographic gradients in Britain

- Environmental Science
- 1992

In the British biota, turnover at this scale is more the product of range and habitat restriction than of dispersal limitation; and turnover is a relatively minor component of regional diversity, because of the predominance of strong gradients in alpha diversity.

### Diversity and Evenness: A Unifying Notation and Its Consequences

- Environmental Science
- 1973

Three commonly used measures of diversity, Simpson's index, Shannon's entropy, and the total number of species, are related to Renyi's definition of a generalized entropy, according to which there is a continuum of possible diversity measures.

### Diversity as a Concept and its Measurement

- Economics
- 1982

Abstract This paper puts forth the view that diversity is an average property of a community and identifies that property as species rarity. An intrinsic diversity ordering of communities is defined…

### Similarity indices, sample size and diversity

- Environmental ScienceOecologia
- 2004

It is recommended that the Morisita index be used whenever possible to avoid the complex dealings with effects of sample size and diversity; however, when previous logarithmic transformation of the data is required, theMorisita-Horn or the Renkonen indices are recommended.

### Sampling Properties of a Family of Diversity Measures

- Mathematics
- 1977

A Jamlily oJfspecies diversity mceasures proposed by Hurlbert (1971) is defined as the expected niumiiber oJ species in a random sample of m individuals Jrom a population. For m = 2 this miieasure is…

### Hubbell's fundamental biodiversity parameter and the Simpson diversity index

- Environmental Science
- 2005

This work developed an analytical relationship between this biodiversity parameter and the well-known Simpson diversity index, which suggests that diversity patterns of the metacommunity can also be equally described by the Simpson index.